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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Population structure and local adaptation of MAC lung disease agent Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is one of the most common nontuberculous mycobacterial species responsible for chronic lung disease in humans. Despite increasing worldwide incidence, little is known about the genetic mechanisms behind the population evolution of MAH. To elucidate the local adaptation mechanisms of MAH, we assessed genetic population structure, the mutual homologous recombination, and gene content for 36 global MAH isolates, including 12 Japanese isolates sequenced in the present study. We identified five major MAH lineages and found that extensive mutual homologous recombination occurs among them. Two lineages (MahEastAsia1 and MahEastAsia2) were predominant in the Japanese isolates. We…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic insights into the pathogenicity and environmental adaptability of Enterococcus hirae R17 isolated from pork offered for retail sale.

Genetic information about Enterococcus hirae is limited, a feature that has compromised our understanding of these clinically challenging bacteria. In this study, comparative analysis was performed of E. hirae R17, a daptomycin-resistant strain isolated from pork purchased from a retail market in Beijing, China, and three other enterococcal genomes (Enterococcus faecium DO, Enterococcus faecalis V583, and E. hirae ATCC™ 9790). Some 1,412 genes were identified that represented the core genome together with an additional 139 genes that were specific to E. hirae R17. The functions of these R17 strain-specific coding sequences relate to the COGs categories of carbohydrate transport and metabolism and transcription, a finding…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

CTX-M-15-producing Shewanella sp. clinical isolate expressing OXA-535, a chromosome-encoded OXA-48 variant, putative progenitor of the plasmid-encoded OXA-436.

Shewanella spp. constitute a reservoir of antibiotic resistance determinants. In a bile sample, we have identified three Extended Spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shewanella sp. JAB-1) isolated from a child suffering from cholangitis. Our objectives were to characterize the genome and the resistome of the first ESBL-producing isolate of the genus Shewanella and determine whether plasmidic exchange occurred between the three-bacterial species. Bacterial isolates were characterized using MALDI-TOF, standard biochemical tools and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Shewanella sp JAB-1 and ESBL gene-carrying plasmids were characterized using PacBio and Illumina whole genome sequencing, respectively. The Shewanella sp JAB-1…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the hippuricase-positive Campylobacter avium type strain LMG 24591.

Campylobacter avium is a thermotolerant Campylobacter species that has been isolated from poultry. C. avium was also the second hippuricase-positive species to be identified within Campylobacter Here, we present the genome sequence of the C. avium type strain LMG 24591 (=CCUG 56292(T)), isolated in 2006 from a broiler chicken in Italy. Copyright © 2017 Miller et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Insights from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepraemurium: Massive gene decay and reductive evolution.

Mycobacterium lepraemurium is the causative agent of murine leprosy, a chronic, granulomatous disease similar to human leprosy. Due to the similar clinical manifestations of human and murine leprosy and the difficulty of growing both bacilli axenically, Mycobacterium leprae and M. lepraemurium were once thought to be closely related, although it was later suggested that M. lepraemurium might be related to Mycobacterium avium In this study, the complete genome of M. lepraemurium was sequenced using a combination of PacBio and Illumina sequencing. Phylogenomic analyses confirmed that M. lepraemurium is a distinct species within the M. avium complex (MAC). The M. lepraemurium genome is 4.05 Mb in length, which…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomic analysis of two clonally related multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Single Molecule Real Time Sequencing.

Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a major threat to global TB control. In this study, we focused on two consecutive MDR-TB isolated from the same patient before and after the initiation of anti-TB treatment. To better understand the genomic characteristics of MDR-TB, Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and comparative genomic analyses was performed to identify mutations that contributed to the stepwise development of drug resistance and growth fitness in MDR-TB underin vivochallenge of anti-TB drugs.Result:Both pre-treatment and post-treatment strain demonstrated concordant phenotypic and genotypic susceptibility profiles toward rifampicin, pyrazinamide, streptomycin, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, cycloserine, ethionamide, and para-aminosalicylic acid. However, although…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Mycobacterium phlei genome: expectations and surprises.

Mycobacterium phlei, a nontuberculosis mycobacterial species, was first described in 1898–1899. We present the complete genome sequence for the M. phlei CCUG21000T type strain and the draft genomes for four additional strains. The genome size for all fiveis 5.3 Mb with 69.4% Guanine-Cytosine content. This is ˜0.35 Mbp smaller than the previously reported M. phlei RIVM draft genome. The size difference is attributed partly to large bacteriophage sequence fragments in the M. phlei RIVM genome. Comparative analysis revealed the following: 1) A CRISPR system similar to Type 1E (cas3) in M. phlei RIVM; 2) genes involved in polyamine metabolism and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Pseudomonas cerasi sp. nov. (non Griffin, 1911) isolated from diseased tissue of cherry.

Eight isolates of Gram-negative fluorescent bacteria (58(T), 122, 374, 791, 963, 966, 970a and 1021) were obtained from diseased tissue of cherry trees from different regions of Poland. The symptoms resembled those of bacterial canker. Based on an analysis of 16S rDNA sequences the isolates shared the highest over 99.9% similarity with Pseudomonas ficuserectae JCM 2400(T) and P. congelans DSM 14939(T). Phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes gyrB, rpoD and rpoB revealed that they form a separate cluster and confirmed their closest relation to P. syringae NCPPB 281(T) and P. congelans LMG 21466(T). DNA-DNA hybridization between the cherry isolate 58(T) and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium avium, Isolated from Commercial Domestic Pekin Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica), Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology

Mycobacterium avium is an important pathogenic bacterium in birds and has never, to our knowledge, reported to be isolated from domestic ducks. We present here the complete genome sequence of a virulent strain of Mycobacterium avium, isolated from domestic Pekin ducks for the first time, which was determined by PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Copyright © 2016 Song et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of Phormia regina Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae): implications for medical, veterinary and forensic research.

Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are important medical, veterinary and forensic insects encompassing 8 % of the species diversity observed in the calyptrate insects. Few genomic resources exist to understand the diversity and evolution of this group.We present the hybrid (short and long reads) draft assemblies of the male and female genomes of the common North American blow fly, Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The 550 and 534 Mb draft assemblies contained 8312 and 9490 predicted genes in the female and male genomes, respectively; including?>?93 % conserved eukaryotic genes. Putative X and Y chromosomes (21 and 14 Mb, respectively) were assembled and annotated. The P. regina…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization and comparative overview of complete sequences of the first plasmids of Pandoraea across clinical and non-clinical strains.

To date, information on plasmid analysis in Pandoraea spp. is scarce. To address the gap of knowledge on this, the complete sequences of eight plasmids from Pandoraea spp. namely Pandoraea faecigallinarum DSM 23572(T) (pPF72-1, pPF72-2), Pandoraea oxalativorans DSM 23570(T) (pPO70-1, pPO70-2, pPO70-3, pPO70-4), Pandoraea vervacti NS15 (pPV15) and Pandoraea apista DSM 16535(T) (pPA35) were studied for the first time in this study. The information on plasmid sequences in Pandoraea spp. is useful as the sequences did not match any known plasmid sequence deposited in public databases. Replication genes were not identified in some plasmids, a situation that has led to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Deciphering the virulence factors of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium colombiense.

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) contains clinically important nontuberculous mycobacteria worldwide and is the second largest medical complex in the Mycobacterium genus after the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. MAC comprises several species that are closely phylogenetically related but diverse regarding their host preference, course of disease, virulence and immune response. In this study we provided immunologic and virulence-related insights into the M. colombiense genome as a model of an opportunistic pathogen in the MAC. By using bioinformatic tools we found that M. colombiense has deletions in the genes involved in p-HBA/PDIM/PGL, PLC, SL-1 and HspX production, and loss of the ESX-1 locus. This information…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Active and adaptive Legionella CRISPR-Cas reveals a recurrent challenge to the pathogen.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with CRISPR-associated gene (CRISPR-Cas) systems are widely recognized as critical genome defense systems that protect microbes from external threats such as bacteriophage infection. Several isolates of the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila possess multiple CRISPR-Cas systems (type I-C, type I-F and type II-B), yet the targets of these systems remain unknown. With the recent observation that at least one of these systems (II-B) plays a non-canonical role in supporting intracellular replication, the possibility remained that these systems are vestigial genome defense systems co-opted for other purposes. Our data indicate that this is not the case.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera strain AH16.

Mycobacterium chimaera is a nontuberculous mycobacterial species that causes cardiovascular, pulmonary, and postsurgical infections. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of M. chimaera This genome is 6.33 Mbp, with a G+C content of 67.56%, and encodes 4,926 protein-coding genes, as well as 74 tRNAs, one ncRNA, and three rRNA genes. Copyright © 2016 Hasan et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The sequenced angiosperm genomes and genome databases.

Angiosperms, the flowering plants, provide the essential resources for human life, such as food, energy, oxygen, and materials. They also promoted the evolution of human, animals, and the planet earth. Despite the numerous advances in genome reports or sequencing technologies, no review covers all the released angiosperm genomes and the genome databases for data sharing. Based on the rapid advances and innovations in the database reconstruction in the last few years, here we provide a comprehensive review for three major types of angiosperm genome databases, including databases for a single species, for a specific angiosperm clade, and for multiple angiosperm…

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