September 22, 2019  |  

Proteogenomic analysis reveals alternative splicing and translation as part of the abscisic acid response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

In eukaryotes, mechanisms such as alternative splicing (AS) and alternative translation initiation (ATI) contribute to organismal protein diversity. Specifically, splicing factors play crucial roles in responses to environment and development cues; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well investigated in plants. Here, we report the parallel employment of short-read RNA sequencing, single molecule long-read sequencing and proteomic identification to unravel AS isoforms and previously unannotated proteins in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Combining the data from the two sequencing methods, approximately 83.4% of intron-containing genes were alternatively spliced. Two AS types, which are referred to as alternative first exon (AFE) and alternative last exon (ALE), were more abundant than intron retention (IR); however, by contrast to AS events detected under normal conditions, differentially expressed AS isoforms were more likely to be translated. ABA extensively affects the AS pattern, indicated by the increasing number of non-conventional splicing sites. This work also identified thousands of unannotated peptides and proteins by ATI based on mass spectrometry and a virtual peptide library deduced from both strands of coding regions within the Arabidopsis genome. The results enhance our understanding of AS and alternative translation mechanisms under normal conditions, and in response to ABA treatment.© 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

September 22, 2019  |  

Deciphering lignocellulose deconstruction by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus based on genomic and transcriptomic analyses.

Irpex lacteus is one of the most potent white rot fungi for biological pretreatment of lignocellulose for second biofuel production. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism involved in lignocellulose deconstruction, genomic and transcriptomic analyses were carried out for I. lacteus CD2 grown in submerged fermentation using ball-milled corn stover as the carbon source.Irpex lacteus CD2 efficiently decomposed 74.9% lignin, 86.3% cellulose, and 83.5% hemicellulose in corn stover within 9 days. Manganese peroxidases were rapidly induced, followed by accumulation of cellulase and hemicellulase. Genomic analysis revealed that I. lacteus CD2 possessed a complete set of lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system composed mainly of class II peroxidases, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, auxiliary enzymes, and 182 glycoside hydrolases. Comparative transcriptomic analysis substantiated the notion of a selection mode of degradation. These analyses also suggested that free radicals, derived either from MnP-organic acid interplay or from Fenton reaction involving Fe2+ and H2O2, could play an important role in lignocellulose degradation.The selective strategy employed by I. lacteus CD2, in combination with low extracellular glycosidases cleaving plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, may account for high pretreatment efficiency of I. lacteus. Our study also hints the importance of free radicals for future designing of novel, robust lignocellulose-degrading enzyme cocktails.

September 22, 2019  |  

Emergence of a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-8, in NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

The rapid increase in carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacteria has renewed focus on the importance of polymyxin antibiotics (colistin or polymyxin E). However, the recent emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants (mcr-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -7), especially mcr-1, in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a serious threat to global health. Here, we characterized a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-8, located on a transferrable 95,983-bp IncFII-type plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The deduced amino-acid sequence of MCR-8 showed 31.08%, 30.26%, 39.96%, 37.85%, 33.51%, 30.43%, and 37.46% identity to MCR-1, MCR-2, MCR-3, MCR-4, MCR-5, MCR-6, and MCR-7, respectively. Functional cloning indicated that the acquisition of the single mcr-8 gene significantly increased resistance to colistin in both Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae. Notably, the coexistence of mcr-8 and the carbapenemase-encoding gene blaNDM was confirmed in K. pneumoniae isolates of livestock origin. Moreover, BLASTn analysis of mcr-8 revealed that this gene was present in a colistin- and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strain isolated from the sputum of a patient with pneumonia syndrome in the respiratory intensive care unit of a Chinese hospital in 2016. These findings indicated that mcr-8 has existed for some time and has disseminated among K. pneumoniae of both animal and human origin, further increasing the public health burden of antimicrobial resistance.

September 22, 2019  |  

Comparative genomics of degradative Novosphingobium strains with special reference to the microcystin-degrading Novosphingobium sp. THN1

Bacteria in genus Novosphingobium associated with biodegradation of substrates are prevalent in environments such as lakes, soil, sea, wood and sediments. To better understand the characteristics linked to their wide distribution and metabolic versatility, we report the whole genome sequence of Novosphingobium sp. THN1, a microcystin-degrading strain previously isolated by Jiang et al. (2011) from cyanobacteria-blooming water samples from Lake Taihu, China. We performed a genomic comparison analysis of Novosphingobium sp. THN1 with 21 other degradative Novosphingobium strains downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using 16S rRNA genes, core genes, protein-coding sequences, and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes. Orthologous protein analysis showed that the 22 genomes contained 674 core genes and each strain contained a high proportion of distributed genes that are shared by a subset of strains. Inspection of their genomic plasticity revealed a high number of insertion sequence elements and genomic islands that were distributed on both chromosomes and plasmids. We also compared the predicted functional profiles of the Novosphingobium protein-coding genes. The flexible genes and all protein-coding genes produced the same heatmap clusters. The COG annotations were used to generate a dendrogram correlated with the compounds degraded. Furthermore, the metabolic profiles predicted from KEGG pathways showed that the majority of genes involved in central carbon metabolism, nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate metabolism, energy metabolism and cell mobility (above 62.5%) are located on chromosomes. Whereas, a great many of genes involved in degradation pathways (21–50%) are located on plasmids. The abundance and distribution of aromatics-degradative mono- and dioxygenases varied among 22 Novosphingoibum strains. Comparative analysis of the microcystin-degrading mlr gene cluster provided evidence for horizontal acquisition of this cluster. The Novosphingobium sp. THN1 genome sequence contained all the functional genes crucial for microcystin degradation and the mlr gene cluster shared high sequence similarity (=85%) with the sequences of other microcystin-degrading genera isolated from cyanobacteria-blooming water. Our results indicate that Novosphingobium species have high genomic and functional plasticity, rearranging their genomes according to environment variations and shaping their metabolic profiles by the substrates they are exposed to, to better adapt to their environments.

September 22, 2019  |  

Molecular characteristics and comparative genomics analysis of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus with a resistance plasmid.

The aim of this work was to investigate the molecular characterization of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus strain with a resistance plasmid.En. casseliflavus EC369 was isolated from a patient in a hospital in southern China. The minimum inhibitory concentration was found by means of the agar dilution method to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the strains. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis were performed to analyze the mechanism of antibiotic resistance and the horizontal gene transfer of the resistance gene-related mobile genetic elements.En. casseliflavus EC369 showed resistance to erythromycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin, but was susceptible to vancomycin, ampicillin, and streptothricin and other antimicrobials. There were six resistance genes (aph3′, ant6, bla, sat4, and two ermBs) carried by a transposon identified on the plasmid pEC369 and a complete resistance gene cluster of vancomycin and a tet (M) gene encoded on the chromosome. This is the first complete plasmid sequence reported in clinically isolated En. casseliflavus. The plasmid with the greatest sequence identity with pEC369 was the plasmid of Enterococcus sp. FDAARGOS_375, followed by the plasmids of Enterococcus faecium strains F12085 and pRE25, whereas the sequence with the greatest identity to the resistance genes carrying a transposon of pEC369 was on the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus strain GD1677.The resistance profiles of En. casseliflavus EC369 might contribute to the resistance genes encoded on the plasmid. The fact that the most similar sequence to the transposon carrying resistance genes of pEC369 was encoded in the chromosome of a S. aureus strain provides insights into the mechanism of dissemination of multidrug resistance between bacteria of different species or genera through horizontal gene transfer.

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