April 21, 2020  |  

The bracteatus pineapple genome and domestication of clonally propagated crops.

Domestication of clonally propagated crops such as pineapple from South America was hypothesized to be a ‘one-step operation’. We sequenced the genome of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus CB5 and assembled 513?Mb into 25 chromosomes with 29,412 genes. Comparison of the genomes of CB5, F153 and MD2 elucidated the genomic basis of fiber production, color formation, sugar accumulation and fruit maturation. We also resequenced 89 Ananas genomes. Cultivars ‘Smooth Cayenne’ and ‘Queen’ exhibited ancient and recent admixture, while ‘Singapore Spanish’ supported a one-step operation of domestication. We identified 25 selective sweeps, including a strong sweep containing a pair of tandemly duplicated bromelain inhibitors. Four candidate genes for self-incompatibility were linked in F153, but were not functional in self-compatible CB5. Our findings support the coexistence of sexual recombination and a one-step operation in the domestication of clonally propagated crops. This work guides the exploration of sexual and asexual domestication trajectories in other clonally propagated crops.

April 21, 2020  |  

SMRT sequencing analysis reveals the full-length transcripts and alternative splicing patterns in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is an herbaceous perennial monocot cultivated as an ornamental plant for its chimeric leaves. Because of its genomic complexity, and because no genomic information is available in the public GenBank database, the complete structure of the mRNA transcript is unclear and there are limited molecular mechanism studies for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.Three size fractionated full-length cDNA libraries (1-2 kb, 2-3 kb, and 3-6 kb) were constructed and subsequently sequenced in five single-molecule real-time (SMRT) cells (2 cells, 2 cells, and 1 cell, respectively).In total, 19,838 transcripts were identified for alternative splicing (AS) analysis. Among them, 19,185 (96.7%) transcripts were functionally annotated. A total of 9,921 genes were identified by mapping the non-redundant isoforms to the reference genome. A total of 10,649 AS events were identified, the majority of which were intron retention events. The alternatively spliced genes had functions in the basic metabolism processes of the plant such as carbon metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and glycolysis. Fourteen genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were identified as having AS events. The distribution of the splicing sites and the percentage of conventional and non-canonical AS sites of the genes categorized in pathways related to the albino leaf phenotype (ko00860, ko00195, ko00196, and ko00710) varied greatly. The present results showed that there were 8,316 genes carrying at least one poly (A) site, which generated 21,873 poly (A) sites. These findings indicated that the quality of the gene structure and functional information of the obtained genome was greatly improved, which may facilitate further genetic study of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

April 21, 2020  |  

Liriodendron genome sheds light on angiosperm phylogeny and species-pair differentiation.

The genus Liriodendron belongs to the family Magnoliaceae, which resides within the magnoliids, an early diverging lineage of the Mesangiospermae. However, the phylogenetic relationship of magnoliids with eudicots and monocots has not been conclusively resolved and thus remains to be determined1-6. Liriodendron is a relict lineage from the Tertiary with two distinct species-one East Asian (L. chinense (Hemsley) Sargent) and one eastern North American (L. tulipifera Linn)-identified as a vicariad species pair. However, the genetic divergence and evolutionary trajectories of these species remain to be elucidated at the whole-genome level7. Here, we report the first de novo genome assembly of a plant in the Magnoliaceae, L. chinense. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that magnoliids are sister to the clade consisting of eudicots and monocots, with rapid diversification occurring in the common ancestor of these three lineages. Analyses of population genetic structure indicate that L. chinense has diverged into two lineages-the eastern and western groups-in China. While L. tulipifera in North America is genetically positioned between the two L. chinense groups, it is closer to the eastern group. This result is consistent with phenotypic observations that suggest that the eastern and western groups of China may have diverged long ago, possibly before the intercontinental differentiation between L. chinense and L. tulipifera. Genetic diversity analyses show that L. chinense has tenfold higher genetic diversity than L. tulipifera, suggesting that the complicated regions comprising east-west-orientated mountains and the Yangtze river basin (especially near 30°?N latitude) in East Asia offered more successful refugia than the south-north-orientated mountain valleys in eastern North America during the Quaternary glacial period.

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