April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequence of Achromobacter spanius UQ283, a Soilborne Isolate Exhibiting Plant Growth-Promoting Properties.

Achromobacter spanius UQ283 is a soilborne bacterium found to exhibit plant growth-promoting and disease-suppressing attributes in several plant species. Accordingly, we used long-read sequencing to determine its complete genome sequence. The assembled genome will aid in understanding the multifaceted interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, pathogens, and plants. Copyright © 2019 Wass et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genomic characterization of Kerstersia gyiorum SWMUKG01, an isolate from a patient with respiratory infection in China.

The Gram-negative bacterium Kerstersia gyiorum, a potential etiological agent of clinical infections, was isolated from several human patients presenting clinical symptoms. Its significance as a possible pathogen has been previously overlooked as no disease has thus far been definitively associated with this bacterium. To better understand how the organism contributes to the infectious disease, we determined the complete genomic sequence of K. gyiorum SWMUKG01, the first clinical isolate from southwest China.The genomic data obtained displayed a single circular chromosome of 3, 945, 801 base pairs in length, which contains 3, 441 protein-coding genes, 55 tRNA genes and 9 rRNA genes. Analysis on the full spectrum of protein coding genes for cellular structures, two-component regulatory systems and iron uptake pathways that may be important for the success of the bacterial survival, colonization and establishment in the host conferred new insights into the virulence characteristics of K. gyiorum. Phylogenomic comparisons with Alcaligenaceae species indicated that K. gyiorum SWMUKG01 had a close evolutionary relationships with Alcaligenes aquatilis and Alcaligenes faecalis.The comprehensive analysis presented in this work determinates for the first time a complete genome sequence of K. gyiorum, which is expected to provide useful information for subsequent studies on pathogenesis of this species.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterization of the genome of a Nocardia strain isolated from soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that specifically degrades crude oil and of this biodegradation.

A strain of Nocardia isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degrades nearly all components of crude oil. This strain was identified as Nocardia soli Y48, and its growth conditions were determined. Complete genome sequencing showed that N. soli Y48 has a 7.3?Mb genome and many genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, emulsification and other hydrocarbon degradation-related metabolisms. Analysis of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) and genomic islands (GIs) revealed that Y48 has undergone significant gene transfer events to adapt to changing environmental conditions (crude oil contamination). The structural features of the genome might provide a competitive edge for the survival of N. soli Y48 in oil-polluted environments and reflect the adaptation of coexisting bacteria to distinct nutritional niches.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.


July 19, 2019  |  

Unlocking the mystery of the hard-to-sequence phage genome: PaP1 methylome and bacterial immunity.

Whole-genome sequencing is an important method to understand the genetic information, gene function, biological characteristics and survival mechanisms of organisms. Sequencing large genomes is very simple at present. However, we encountered a hard-to-sequence genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1. Shotgun sequencing method failed to complete the sequence of this genome.After persevering for 10 years and going over three generations of sequencing techniques, we successfully completed the sequence of the PaP1 genome with a length of 91,715 bp. Single-molecule real-time sequencing results revealed that this genome contains 51?N-6-methyladenines and 152?N-4-methylcytosines. Three significant modified sequence motifs were predicted, but not all of the sites found in the genome were methylated in these motifs. Further investigations revealed a novel immune mechanism of bacteria, in which host bacteria can recognise and repel modified bases containing inserts in a large scale. This mechanism could be accounted for the failure of the shotgun method in PaP1 genome sequencing. This problem was resolved using the nfi- mutant of Escherichia coli DH5a as a host bacterium to construct a shotgun library.This work provided insights into the hard-to-sequence phage PaP1 genome and discovered a new mechanism of bacterial immunity. The methylome of phage PaP1 is responsible for the failure of shotgun sequencing and for bacterial immunity mediated by enzyme Endo V activity; this methylome also provides a valuable resource for future studies on PaP1 genome replication and modification, as well as on gene regulation and host interaction.


July 19, 2019  |  

Biosynthesis and function of modified bases in bacteria and their viruses.

Naturally occurring modification of the canonical A, G, C, and T bases can be found in the DNA of cellular organisms and viruses from all domains of life. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) are a particularly rich but still underexploited source of such modified variant nucleotides. The modifications conserve the coding and base-pairing functions of DNA, but add regulatory and protective functions. In prokaryotes, modified bases appear primarily to be part of an arms race between bacteriophages (and other genomic parasites) and their hosts, although, as in eukaryotes, some modifications have been adapted to convey epigenetic information. The first half of this review catalogs the identification and diversity of DNA modifications found in bacteria and bacteriophages. What is known about the biogenesis, context, and function of these modifications are also described. The second part of the review places these DNA modifications in the context of the arms race between bacteria and bacteriophages. It focuses particularly on the defense and counter-defense strategies that turn on direct recognition of the presence of a modified base. Where modification has been shown to affect other DNA transactions, such as expression and chromosome segregation, that is summarized, with reference to recent reviews.


July 19, 2019  |  

Characterization of a large antibiotic resistance plasmid found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain B171 and its relatedness to plasmids of diverse E. coli and Shigella.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of severe infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Previous research has focused on the diversity of the EPEC virulence plasmid, whereas less is known regarding the genetic content and distribution of antibiotic resistance plasmids carried by EPEC. A previous study demonstrated that in addition to the virulence plasmid, reference EPEC strain B171 harbors a second, larger plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance. To further understand the genetic diversity and dissemination of antibiotic resistance plasmids among EPEC strains, we describe the complete sequence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from EPEC strain B171. The resistance plasmid, pB171_90, has a completed sequence length of 90,229 bp, a GC content of 54.55%, and carries protein-encoding genes involved in conjugative transfer, resistance to tetracycline (tetA), sulfonamides (sulI), and mercury, as well as several virulence-associated genes, including the transcriptional regulator hha and the putative calcium sequestration inhibitor (csi). In silico detection of the pB171_90 genes among 4,798 publicly available E. coli genome assemblies indicates that the unique genes of pB171_90 (csi and traI) are primarily restricted to genomes identified as EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli However, conserved regions of the pB171_90 plasmid containing genes involved in replication, stability, and antibiotic resistance were identified among diverse E. coli pathotypes. Interestingly, pB171_90 also exhibited significant similarity with a sequenced plasmid from Shigella dysenteriae type I. Our findings demonstrate the mosaic nature of EPEC antibiotic resistance plasmids and highlight the need for additional sequence-based characterization of antibiotic resistance plasmids harbored by pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


July 19, 2019  |  

Unexpected diversity in the mobilome of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from a dental unit waterline revealed by SMRT Sequencing.

The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is found in several habitats, both natural and human-made, and is particularly known for its recurrent presence as a pathogen in the lungs of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease. Given its clinical importance, several major studies have investigated the genomic adaptation of P. aeruginosa in lungs and its transition as acute infections become chronic. However, our knowledge about the diversity and adaptation of the P. aeruginosa genome to non-clinical environments is still fragmentary, in part due to the lack of accurate reference genomes of strains from the numerous environments colonized by the bacterium. Here, we used PacBio long-read technology to sequence the genome of PPF-1, a strain of P. aeruginosa isolated from a dental unit waterline. Generating this closed genome was an opportunity to investigate genomic features that are difficult to accurately study in a draft genome (contigs state). It was possible to shed light on putative genomic islands, some shared with other reference genomes, new prophages, and the complete content of insertion sequences. In addition, four different group II introns were also found, including two characterized here and not listed in the specialized group II intron database.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genome analysis of Pseudomonas knackmussii B13, the first bacterium known to degrade chloroaromatic compounds.

Pseudomonas knackmussii B13 was the first strain to be isolated in 1974 that could degrade chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. This discovery was the prologue for subsequent characterization of numerous bacterial metabolic pathways, for genetic and biochemical studies, and which spurred ideas for pollutant bioremediation. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of B13 using next generation sequencing technologies and optical mapping. Genome annotation indicated that B13 has a variety of metabolic pathways for degrading monoaromatic hydrocarbons including chlorobenzoate, aminophenol, anthranilate and hydroxyquinol, but not polyaromatic compounds. Comparative genome analysis revealed that B13 is closest to Pseudomonas denitrificans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The B13 genome contains at least eight genomic islands [prophages and integrative conjugative elements (ICEs)], which were absent in closely related pseudomonads. We confirm that two ICEs are identical copies of the 103?kb self-transmissible element ICEclc that carries the genes for chlorocatechol metabolism. Comparison of ICEclc showed that it is composed of a variable and a ‘core’ region, which is very conserved among proteobacterial genomes, suggesting a widely distributed family of so far uncharacterized ICE. Resequencing of two spontaneous B13 mutants revealed a number of single nucleotide substitutions, as well as excision of a large 220?kb region and a prophage that drastically change the host metabolic capacity and survivability. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae GGT036: a furfural tolerant soil bacterium.

Enterobacter cloacae is a facultative anaerobic bacterium to be an important cause of nosocomial infection. However, the isolated E. cloacae GGT036 showed higher furfural-tolerant cellular growth, compared to industrial relevant strains such as Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 isolated from Mt. Gwanak, Seoul, Republic of Korea. The genomic DNA sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 will provide valuable genetic resources for engineering of industrially relevant strains being tolerant to cellular inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi ATCC 33843 (392 [MAV]).

Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative marine ?-proteobacterium that is known to be a formidable pathogen of aquatic animals and is a model organism for the study of bacterial bioluminescence and quorum sensing. In this report, we describe the complete genome sequence of the most studied strain of this species: V. harveyi ATCC 33843 (392 [MAV]). Copyright © 2015 Wang et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Sequencing of plasmids pAMBL1 and pAMBL2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals a blaVIM-1 amplification causing high-level carbapenem resistance.

Carbapenemases are a major concern for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Although plasmids are responsible for the spread of resistance genes among these pathogens, there is limited information on the nature of the mobile genetic elements carrying carbapenemases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.We combined data from two different next-generation sequencing platforms, Illumina HiSeq2000 and PacBio RSII, to obtain the complete nucleotide sequences of two blaVIM-1-carrying plasmids (pAMBL1 and pAMBL2) isolated from P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.Plasmid pAMBL1 has 26?440 bp and carries a RepA_C family replication protein. pAMBL1 is similar to plasmids pNOR-2000 and pKLC102 from P. aeruginosa and pAX22 from Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which also carry VIM-type carbapenemases. pAMBL2 is a 24?133 bp plasmid with a replication protein that belongs to the Rep_3 family. It shows a high degree of homology with a fragment of the blaVIM-1-bearing plasmid pPC9 from Pseudomonas putida. Plasmid pAMBL2 carries three copies of the blaVIM-1 cassette in an In70 class 1 integron conferring, unlike pAMBL1, high-level resistance to carbapenems.We present two new plasmids coding for VIM-1 carbapenemase from P. aeruginosa and report that the presence of three copies of blaVIM-1 in pAMBL2 produces high-level resistance to carbapenems.© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Achromobacter xylosoxidans MN001, a cystic fibrosis airway isolate.

The genome of Achromobacter xylosoxidans MN001, a strain isolated from sputum derived from an adult cystic fibrosis patient, was sequenced using combined single-molecule real-time and Illumina sequencing. Assembly of the complete genome resulted in a 5,876,039-bp chromosome, representing the smallest A. xylosoxidans genome sequenced to date. Copyright © 2015 Badalamenti and Hunter.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence analysis of the naphthenic acid degrading and metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii CR3.

Cupriavidus sp. are generally heavy metal tolerant bacteria with the ability to degrade a variety of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, although the degradation pathways and substrate versatilities remain largely unknown. Here we studied the bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain CR3, which was isolated from a natural asphalt deposit, and which was shown to utilize naphthenic acids as a sole carbon source. Genome sequencing of C. gilardii CR3 was carried out to elucidate possible mechanisms for the naphthenic acid biodegradation. The genome of C. gilardii CR3 was composed of two circular chromosomes chr1 and chr2 of respectively 3,539,530 bp and 2,039,213 bp in size. The genome for strain CR3 encoded 4,502 putative protein-coding genes, 59 tRNA genes, and many other non-coding genes. Many genes were associated with xenobiotic biodegradation and metal resistance functions. Pathway prediction for degradation of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a representative naphthenic acid, suggested that naphthenic acid undergoes initial ring-cleavage, after which the ring fission products can be degraded via several plausible degradation pathways including a mechanism similar to that used for fatty acid oxidation. The final metabolic products of these pathways are unstable or volatile compounds that were not toxic to CR3. Strain CR3 was also shown to have tolerance to at least 10 heavy metals, which was mainly achieved by self-detoxification through ion efflux, metal-complexation and metal-reduction, and a powerful DNA self-repair mechanism. Our genomic analysis suggests that CR3 is well adapted to survive the harsh environment in natural asphalts containing naphthenic acids and high concentrations of heavy metals.


July 7, 2019  |  

First genome sequences of Achromobacter phages reveal new members of the N4 family.

Multi-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans has been recognized as an emerging pathogen causing nosocomially acquired infections during the last years. Phages as natural opponents could be an alternative to fight such infections. Bacteriophages against this opportunistic pathogen were isolated in a recent study. This study shows a molecular analysis of two podoviruses and reveals first insights into the genomic structure of Achromobacter phages so far.Growth curve experiments and adsorption kinetics were performed for both phages. Adsorption and propagation in cells were visualized by electron microscopy. Both phage genomes were sequenced with the PacBio RS II system based on single molecule, real-time (SMRT) technology and annotated with several bioinformatic tools. To further elucidate the evolutionary relationships between the phage genomes, a phylogenomic analysis was conducted using the genome Blast Distance Phylogeny approach (GBDP).In this study, we present the first detailed analysis of genome sequences of two Achromobacter phages so far. Phages JWAlpha and JWDelta were isolated from two different waste water treatment plants in Germany. Both phages belong to the Podoviridae and contain linear, double-stranded DNA with a length of 72329 bp and 73659 bp, respectively. 92 and 89 putative open reading frames were identified for JWAlpha and JWDelta, respectively, by bioinformatic analysis with several tools. The genomes have nearly the same organization and could be divided into different clusters for transcription, replication, host interaction, head and tail structure and lysis. Detailed annotation via protein comparisons with BLASTP revealed strong similarities to N4-like phages.Analysis of the genomes of Achromobacter phages JWAlpha and JWDelta and comparisons of different gene clusters with other phages revealed that they might be strongly related to other N4-like phages, especially of the Escherichia group. Although all these phages show a highly conserved genomic structure and partially strong similarities at the amino acid level, some differences could be identified. Those differences, e.g. the existence of specific genes for replication or host interaction in some N4-like phages, seem to be interesting targets for further examination of function and specific mechanisms, which might enlighten the mechanism of phage establishment in the host cell after infection.


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