June 1, 2021  |  

Single Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing for base modification detection in eukaryotic organisms: Coprinopsis cinerea.

Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) DNA sequencing provides a wealth of kinetic information beyond the extraction of the primary DNA sequence, and this kinetic information can provide for the direct detection of modified bases present in genomic DNA. This method has been demonstrated for base modification detection in prokaryotes at base and strand resolutions. In eukaryotes, the common base modifications known to exist are the cytosine variants including methyl, hydroxymethyl, formyl and carboxyl forms. Each of these modifications exhibits different signatures in SMRT kinetic data, allowing for unprecedented possibilities to differentiate between them in direct sequencing data. We present early results of directly sequencing different base modifications in eukaryotic genomic DNA using this method.


April 21, 2020  |  

DNA methylation analysis.

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to cytosine or adenine. DNA methylation can change the activity of the DNA molecule without changing the sequence. Methylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and it is a very important epigenetic modification event, which can regulate gene activity and influence a number of key processes such as genomic imprinting, cell differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin remodeling. Profiling DNA methylation across the genome is critical to understanding the influence of methylation in normal biology and diseases including cancer. Recent discoveries of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) oxidation derivatives including 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytsine (5fC), and 5-carboxycytosine (5caC) in mammalian genome further expand our understanding of the methylation regulation. Genome-wide analyses such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing technologies have been used to assess large fractions of the methylome. A number of different quantitative approaches have also been established to map the DNA epigenomes with single-base resolution, as represented by the bisulfite-based methods, such as classical bisulfite sequencing, pyrosequencing etc. These methods have been used to generate base-resolution maps of 5mC and its oxidation derivatives in genomic samples. The focus of this chapter is to provide the methodologies that have been developed to detect the cytosine derivatives in the genomic DNA.


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