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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Enhancing the adaptability of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 to high pressure and low temperature by experimental evolution under H2O2 stress.

Oxidative stresses commonly exist in natural environments, and microbes have developed a variety of defensive systems to counteract such events. Although increasing evidence has shown that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and low temperature (LT) induce antioxidant defense responses in cells, there is no direct evidence to prove the connection between antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adaptation of bacteria to HHP and LT. In this study, using the wild-type (WT) strain of a deep-sea bacterium, Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, as an ancestor, we obtained a mutant, OE100, with an enhanced antioxidant defense capacity by experimental evolution under H2O2 stress. Notably, OE100 exhibited…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic analysis of oral Campylobacter concisus strains identified a potential bacterial molecular marker associated with active Crohn’s disease.

Campylobacter concisus is an oral bacterium that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). C. concisus consists of two genomospecies (GS) and diverse strains. This study aimed to identify molecular markers to differentiate commensal and IBD-associated C. concisus strains. The genomes of 63 oral C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD and healthy controls were examined, of which 38 genomes were sequenced in this study. We identified a novel secreted enterotoxin B homologue, Csep1. The csep1 gene was found in 56% of GS2 C. concisus strains, presented in the plasmid pICON…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Inferring the minimal genome of Mesoplasma florum by comparative genomics and transposon mutagenesis.

The creation and comparison of minimal genomes will help better define the most fundamental mechanisms supporting life. Mesoplasma florum is a near-minimal, fast-growing, nonpathogenic bacterium potentially amenable to genome reduction efforts. In a comparative genomic study of 13 M. florum strains, including 11 newly sequenced genomes, we have identified the core genome and open pangenome of this species. Our results show that all of the strains have approximately 80% of their gene content in common. Of the remaining 20%, 17% of the genes were found in multiple strains and 3% were unique to any given strain. On the basis of random…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic comparison between members of the Salinibacteraceae family, and description of a new species of Salinibacter (Salinibacter altiplanensis sp. nov.) isolated from high altitude hypersaline environments of the Argentinian Altiplano.

The application of tandem MALDI-TOF MS screening with 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected isolates has been demonstrated to be an excellent approach for retrieving novelty from large-scale culturing. The application of such methodologies in different hypersaline samples allowed the isolation of the culture-recalcitrant Salinibacter ruber second phylotype (EHB-2) for the first time, as well as a new species recently isolated from the Argentinian Altiplano hypersaline lakes. In this study, the genome sequences of the different species of the phylum Rhodothermaeota were compared and the genetic repertoire along the evolutionary gradient was analyzed together with each intraspecific variability. Altogether, the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

In silico exploration of Red Sea Bacillus genomes for natural product biosynthetic gene clusters.

The increasing spectrum of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a major global public health concern, necessitating discovery of novel antimicrobial agents. Here, members of the genus Bacillus are investigated as a potentially attractive source of novel antibiotics due to their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. We specifically focus on a computational analysis of the distinctive biosynthetic potential of Bacillus paralicheniformis strains isolated from the Red Sea, an ecosystem exposed to adverse, highly saline and hot conditions.We report the complete circular and annotated genomes of two Red Sea strains, B. paralicheniformis Bac48 isolated from mangrove mud and B. paralicheniformis Bac84 isolated from microbial…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomic analysis of Geosporobacter ferrireducens and its versatility of anaerobic energy metabolism.

Members of the family Clostridiaceae within phylum Firmicutes are ubiquitous in various iron-reducing environments. However, genomic data on iron-reducing bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae, particularly regarding their environmental distribution, are limited. Here, we report the analysis and comparison of the genomic properties of Geosporobacter ferrireducens IRF9, a strict anaerobe that ferments sugars and degrades toluene under iron-reducing conditions, with those of the closely related species, Geosporobacter subterraneus DSM 17957. Putative alkyl succinate synthase-encoding genes were observed in the genome of strain IRF9 instead of the typical benzyl succinate synthase-encoding genes. Canonical genes associated with iron reduction were not observed in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Pseudomonas aeruginosa L10: A hydrocarbon-degrading, biosurfactant-producing, and plant-growth-promoting endophytic bacterium isolated from a reed (Phragmites australis).

Bacterial endophytes with the capacity to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons and promote plant growth may facilitate phytoremediation for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. A hydrocarbon-degrading, biosurfactant-producing, and plant-growth-promoting endophytic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa L10, was isolated from the roots of a reed, Phragmites australis, in the Yellow River Delta, Shandong, China. P. aeruginosa L10 efficiently degraded C10-C26n-alkanes from diesel oil, as well as common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. In addition, P. aeruginosa L10 could produce biosurfactant, which was confirmed by the oil spreading method, and surface tension determination of inocula. Moreover, P. aeruginosa…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Co-occurrence of mcr-1 in the chromosome and on an IncHI2 plasmid: persistence of colistin resistance in Escherichia coli.

Two colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strains (FS13Z2S and FS3Z6C) possessing chromosomally encoded mcr-1 isolated from swine were characterised. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that in strain FS13Z2S mcr-1 occurred in triplicate in the chromosome with another copy encoded on a pHNSHP45-2-like IncHI2 plasmid, whereas in strain FS3Z6C only one copy mcr-1 was inserted in the chromosome. It seems likely that the triplication of chromosomal copies of mcr-1 in FS13Z2S is due to intramolecular transposition events via a composite transposon containing an mcr-1 cassette bracketed by two copies of insertion sequence ISApl1, and the pap2 gene at the insertion site was truncated by an…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Insect symbionts as valuable grist for the biotechnological mill: an alkaliphilic silkworm gut bacterium for efficient lactic acid production.

Insects constitute the most abundant and diverse animal class and act as hosts to an extraordinary variety of symbiotic microorganisms. These microbes living inside the insects play critical roles in host biology and are also valuable bioresources. Enterococcus mundtii EMB156, isolated from the larval gut (gut pH >10) of the model organism Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), efficiently produces lactic acid, an important metabolite for industrial production of bioplastic materials. E. mundtii EMB156 grows well under alkaline conditions and stably converts various carbon sources into lactic acid, offering advantages in downstream fermentative processes. High-yield lactic acid production can be achieved by…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

First report of the occurrence and whole-genome characterization of Edwardsiella tarda in the false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

Although several Edwardsiella tarda infections have been reported, its pathogenic role in marine mammals has not been investigated at the genome level. We investigated the genome of E. tarda strain KC-Pc-HB1, isolated from the false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) found bycaught in South Korea. The obtained genome was similar to that of human pathogenic E. tarda strains, but distinct from other Edwardsiella species. Although type III and VI secretion systems, which are essential for the virulence of other Edwardsiella species, were absent, several virulence-related genes involved in the pathogenesis of E. tarda were found in the genome. These results provide…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of Campylobacter concisus: Analysis of clinical strains reveals genome diversity and pathogenic potential.

In recent years, an increasing number of Campylobacter species have been associated with human gastrointestinal (GI) diseases including gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancer. Campylobacter concisus, an oral commensal historically linked to gingivitis and periodontitis, has been increasingly detected in the lower GI tract. In the present study, we generated robust genome sequence data from C. concisus strains and undertook a comprehensive pangenome assessment to identify C. concisus virulence properties and to explain potential adaptations acquired while residing in specific ecological niche(s) of the GI tract. Genomes of 53 new C. concisus strains were sequenced, assembled, and annotated including…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with rifampicin and isoniazid resistance

We investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome changes in M. tuberculosis with rifampicin or isoniazid resistance. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and microarray technology were performed to expound DNA methylation profiles and differentially expressed genes in rifampicin or isoniazid resis- tant M. tuberculosis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biological pathway analysis and meth- ylated regulatory network analysis were conducted by online forecasting databases. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptome revealed that 335 differentially methylated genes (175 hypermethylated and 160 hypomethylated) and 132 significant differentially expressed genes (68 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated) were found to be regulated by…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics provides insights into the marine adaptation in sponge-derived Kocuriaflava S43.

Sponge-derived actinomycetes represent a significant component of marine actinomycetes. Members of the genus Kocuria are distributed in various habitats such as soil, rhizosphere, clinical specimens, marine sediments, and sponges, however, to date, little is known about the mechanism of their environmental adaptation. Kocuria flava S43 was isolated from a coastal sponge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it was closely related to the terrestrial airborne K. flava HO-9041. In this study, to gain insights into the marine adaptation in K. flava S43 we sequenced the draft genome for K. flava S43 by third generation sequencing (TGS) and compared it with those of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Computational Modeling of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

Understanding how complex phenotypes arise from individual molecules and their interactions is a primary challenge in biology, and computational approaches have been increasingly employed to tackle this task. In this chapter, we describe current efforts by FIOCRUZ and partners to develop integrated computational models of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The bacterium chosen as the main focus of this effort is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen associated with a broad spectrum of infections in humans. Nowadays, P. aeruginosa is one of the main problems of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in the world, because of its great capacity of survival in hospital environments and its…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptional regulation of cysteine and methionine metabolism in Lactobacillus paracasei FAM18149.

Lactobacillus paracasei is common in the non-starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) community of raw milk cheeses. This species can significantly contribute to flavor formation through amino acid metabolism. In this study, the DNA and RNA of L. paracasei FAM18149 were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies to reconstruct the metabolism of the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. Twenty-three genes were found to be involved in cysteine biosynthesis, the conversion of cysteine to methionine and vice versa, the S-adenosylmethionine recycling pathway, and the transport of sulfur-containing amino acids. Additionally, six methionine-specific T-boxes and one cysteine-specific T-box were found. Five of these…

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