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Sunday, September 22, 2019

wtf genes are prolific dual poison-antidote meiotic drivers.

Meiotic drivers are selfish genes that bias their transmission into gametes, defying Mendelian inheritance. Despite the significant impact of these genomic parasites on evolution and infertility, few meiotic drive loci have been identified or mechanistically characterized. Here, we demonstrate a complex landscape of meiotic drive genes on chromosome 3 of the fission yeasts Schizosaccharomyces kambucha and S. pombe. We identify S. kambucha wtf4 as one of these genes that acts to kill gametes (known as spores in yeast) that do not inherit the gene from heterozygotes. wtf4 utilizes dual, overlapping transcripts to encode both a gamete-killing poison and an antidote…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Next generation multilocus sequence typing (NGMLST) and the analytical software program MLSTEZ enable efficient, cost-effective, high-throughput, multilocus sequencing typing.

Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has become the preferred method for genotyping many biological species, and it is especially useful for analyzing haploid eukaryotes. MLST is rigorous, reproducible, and informative, and MLST genotyping has been shown to identify major phylogenetic clades, molecular groups, or subpopulations of a species, as well as individual strains or clones. MLST molecular types often correlate with important phenotypes. Conventional MLST involves the extraction of genomic DNA and the amplification by PCR of several conserved, unlinked gene sequences from a sample of isolates of the taxon under investigation. In some cases, as few as three loci are…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Long-read sequencing of nascent RNA reveals coupling among RNA processing events.

Pre-mRNA splicing is accomplished by the spliceosome, a megadalton complex that assembles de novo on each intron. Because spliceosome assembly and catalysis occur cotranscriptionally, we hypothesized that introns are removed in the order of their transcription in genomes dominated by constitutive splicing. Remarkably little is known about splicing order and the regulatory potential of nascent transcript remodeling by splicing, due to the limitations of existing methods that focus on analysis of mature splicing products (mRNAs) rather than substrates and intermediates. Here, we overcome this obstacle through long-read RNA sequencing of nascent, multi-intron transcripts in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Most…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Effect of Chinese rice wine sludge on the production of Chinese steamed buns

Chinese rice wine sludge (CRWS), analogous to beer yeast sludge, is the filter cake remaining after squeezing the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine. CRWS contains high levels of protein (44.74%), nonstructural carbohydrates (37.33%), crude fiber (13.5%), and essential amino acids, which could enhance the trophic value of Chinese steamed buns. In our research, the microbiota of CRWS (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus sp.) was analyzed at the species level by single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing technology. Interestingly, the microbiota of CRWS was similar to that of the starter dough typically used to prepare Chinese steamed buns. Incorporation of CRWS significantly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The dynamic landscape of fission yeast meiosis alternative-splice isoforms.

Alternative splicing increases the diversity of transcriptomes and proteomes in metazoans. The extent to which alternative splicing is active and functional in unicellular organisms is less understood. Here, we exploit a single-molecule long-read sequencing technique and develop an open-source software program called SpliceHunter to characterize the transcriptome in the meiosis of fission yeast. We reveal 14,353 alternative splicing events in 17,669 novel isoforms at different stages of meiosis, including antisense and read-through transcripts. Intron retention is the major type of alternative splicing, followed by alternate “intron in exon.” Seven hundred seventy novel transcription units are detected; 53 of the predicted…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Splicing of nascent RNA coincides with intron exit from RNA Polymerase II.

Protein-coding genes in eukaryotes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and introns are removed from pre-mRNA by the spliceosome. Understanding the time lag between Pol II progression and splicing could provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of gene expression. Here, we present two single-molecule nascent RNA sequencing methods that directly determine the progress of splicing catalysis as a function of Pol II position. Endogenous genes were analyzed on a global scale in budding yeast. We show that splicing is 50% complete when Pol II is only 45 nt downstream of introns, with the first spliced products observed as…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence and analysis of the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain N85 used in Chinese rice wine production.

Chinese rice wine is a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China, while its brewing processes have rarely been explored. We herein report the first gapless, near-finished genome sequence of the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae N85 for Chinese rice wine production. Several assembly methods were used to integrate Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) and Illumina sequencing data to achieve high-quality genome sequencing of the strain. The genome encodes more than 6,000 predicted proteins, and 238 long non-coding RNAs, which are validated by RNA-sequencing data. Moreover, our annotation predicts 171 novel genes that are not present in the reference S288c genome. We also identified…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Functional genomics of lipid metabolism in the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.

The basidiomycete yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (also known as Rhodotorula toruloides) accumulates high concentrations of lipids and carotenoids from diverse carbon sources. It has great potential as a model for the cellular biology of lipid droplets and for sustainable chemical production. We developed a method for high-throughput genetics (RB-TDNAseq), using sequence-barcoded Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA insertions. We identified 1,337 putative essential genes with low T-DNA insertion rates. We functionally profiled genes required for fatty acid catabolism and lipid accumulation, validating results with 35 targeted deletion strains. We identified a high-confidence set of 150 genes affecting lipid accumulation, including genes with predicted function…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A combinatorial approach to synthetic transcription factor-promoter combinations for yeast strain engineering.

Despite the need for inducible promoters in strain development efforts, the majority of engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to rely on a few constitutively active or inducible promoters. Building on advances that use the modular nature of both transcription factors and promoter regions, we have built a library of hybrid promoters that are regulated by a synthetic transcription factor. The hybrid promoters consist of native S. cerevisiae promoters, in which the operator regions have been replaced with sequences that are recognized by the bacterial LexA DNA binding protein. Correspondingly, the synthetic transcription factor (TF) consists of the DNA binding domain…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ploidy variation in Kluyveromyces marxianus separates dairy and non-dairy isolates.

Kluyveromyces marxianus is traditionally associated with fermented dairy products, but can also be isolated from diverse non-dairy environments. Because of thermotolerance, rapid growth and other traits, many different strains are being developed for food and industrial applications but there is, as yet, little understanding of the genetic diversity or population genetics of this species. K. marxianus shows a high level of phenotypic variation but the only phenotype that has been clearly linked to a genetic polymorphism is lactose utilisation, which is controlled by variation in the LAC12 gene. The genomes of several strains have been sequenced in recent years and,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Repeated evolution of self-compatibility for reproductive assurance.

Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes requires the fusion of two compatible gametes of opposite sexes or mating types. To meet the challenge of finding a mating partner with compatible gametes, evolutionary mechanisms such as hermaphroditism and self-fertilization have repeatedly evolved. Here, by combining the insights from comparative genomics, computer simulations and experimental evolution in fission yeast, we shed light on the conditions promoting separate mating types or self-compatibility by mating-type switching. Analogous to multiple independent transitions between switchers and non-switchers in natural populations mediated by structural genomic changes, novel switching genotypes readily evolved under selection in the experimental populations. Detailed fitness…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome evolution across 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates.

Large-scale population genomic surveys are essential to explore the phenotypic diversity of natural populations. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and phenotyping of 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates, which together provide an accurate evolutionary picture of the genomic variants that shape the species-wide phenotypic landscape of this yeast. Genomic analyses support a single ‘out-of-China’ origin for this species, followed by several independent domestication events. Although domesticated isolates exhibit high variation in ploidy, aneuploidy and genome content, genome evolution in wild isolates is mainly driven by the accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms. A common feature is the extensive loss of heterozygosity, which…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The N6-adenine methylation in yeast genome profiled by single-molecule technology.

The most common and abundant DNA modification is 5-meth- ylcytosine (5mC), which has been well-established as an epigenetic mark regulating gene expression in eukaryotes (Jones, 2012). Another DNA modification N6-methyldeoxyadenosine (6mA), pre- viously reported as a widespread DNA methylation in prokaryotes, plays an important role in gene expression, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and host-pathogen interaction (Messer and Noyer-Weidner, 1988; Lu et al., 1994; Collier et al., 2007). The knowledge of 6mA in eukaryotes has been very limited until the recent development of high-throughput sequencing and high-sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, which have greatly contributed to the investigation of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-oleate yeast oil without polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Oleate-enriched triacylglycerides are well-suited for lubricant applications that require high oxidative stability. Fatty acid carbon chain length and degree of desaturation are key determinants of triacylglyceride properties and the ability to manipulate fatty acid composition in living organisms is critical to developing a source of bio-based oil tailored to meet specific application requirements.We sought to engineer the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for production of high-oleate triacylglyceride oil. We studied the effect of deletions and overexpressions in the fatty acid and triacylglyceride synthesis pathways to identify modifications that increase oleate levels. Oleic acid accumulation in triacylglycerides was promoted by exchanging the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

In vitro DNA SCRaMbLE.

The power of synthetic biology has enabled the expression of heterologous pathways in cells, as well as genome-scale synthesis projects. The complexity of biological networks makes rational de novo design a grand challenge. Introducing features that confer genetic flexibility is a powerful strategy for downstream engineering. Here we develop an in vitro method of DNA library construction based on structural variation to accomplish this goal. The “in vitro SCRaMbLE system” uses Cre recombinase mixed in a test tube with purified DNA encoding multiple loxPsym sites. Using a ß-carotene pathway designed for expression in yeast as an example, we demonstrate top-down…

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