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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic analyses reveal that partial sequence of an earlier pseudorabies virus in China is originated from a Bartha-vaccine-like strain.

Pseudorabies virus (PRV), the causative agent of Aujeszky?s disease, has gained increased attention in China in recent years as a result of the outbreak of emergent pseudorabies. Several genomic and partial sequences are available for Chinese emergent and European-American strains of PRV, but limited sequence data exist for the earlier Chinese strains. In this study, we determined the complete genomic sequence of one earlier Chinese strain SC and one emergent strain HLJ8. Compared with other known sequences, we demonstrated that PRV strains from distinct geographical regions displayed divergent evolution. Additionally, we report for the first time, a recombination event between…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A strange endocytobiont revealed as largest virus.

A lot of endocytobionts (or endosymbionts) have been discovered within free-living amoebae in recent years. In this article the results of a long lasting effort to derive valuable data about an extraordinary spore-like infectious microorganism (endocytobiont, endosymbiont) within host amoebae (Acanthamoeba sp.) recently isolated from the contact lens case of a patient with keratitis, are presented. It took some time until this endocytobiont could be attributed to the genus Pandoravirus following a publication of two other pandoraviruses isolated from aquatic environments. Consequently the molecular biological investigation led to the taxonomic affiliation of the endocytobiont with the genus Pandoravirus and to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolution of coreceptor utilization to escape CCR5 antagonist therapy.

The HIV-1 envelope interacts with coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in a dynamic, multi-step process, its molecular details not clearly delineated. Use of CCR5 antagonists results in tropism shift and therapeutic failure. Here we describe a novel approach using full-length patient-derived gp160 quasispecies libraries cloned into HIV-1 molecular clones, their separation based on phenotypic tropism in vitro, and deep sequencing of the resultant variants for structure-function analyses. Analysis of functionally validated envelope sequences from patients who failed CCR5 antagonist therapy revealed determinants strongly associated with coreceptor specificity, especially at the gp120-gp41 and gp41-gp41 interaction surfaces that invite future research on the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of pseudorabies virus reference strain NIA3 using single-molecule real-time sequencing.

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is the causative agent of Aujeszky’s disease in pigs. PRV strains are also used as model organisms for the study of alphaherpesvirus biology or for neuronal pathway studies. We present here the complete genome of the virulent wild-type PRV reference strain NIA3, determined by single-molecule real-time sequencing. Copyright © 2016 Mathijs et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Long single-molecule reads can resolve the complexity of the influenza virus composed of rare, closely related mutant variants

As a result of a high rate of mutations and recombination events, an RNA-virus exists as a heterogeneous “swarm” of mutant variants. The long read length offered by single-molecule sequencing technologies allows each mutant variant to be sequenced in a single pass. However, high error rate limits the ability to reconstruct heterogeneous viral population composed of rare, related mutant variants. In this paper, we present 2SNV, a method able to tolerate the high error-rate of the single-molecule protocol and reconstruct mutant variants. 2SNV uses linkage between single nucleotide variations to efficiently distinguish them from read errors. To benchmark the sensitivity…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Chloroplast genomes: diversity, evolution, and applications in genetic engineering.

Chloroplasts play a crucial role in sustaining life on earth. The availability of over 800 sequenced chloroplast genomes from a variety of land plants has enhanced our understanding of chloroplast biology, intracellular gene transfer, conservation, diversity, and the genetic basis by which chloroplast transgenes can be engineered to enhance plant agronomic traits or to produce high-value agricultural or biomedical products. In this review, we discuss the impact of chloroplast genome sequences on understanding the origins of economically important cultivated species and changes that have taken place during domestication. We also discuss the potential biotechnological applications of chloroplast genomes.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Next-generation sequencing: a diagnostic one-stop shop for Hepatitis C?

Before starting chronic hepatitis C treatment, the viral genotype/subtype has to be accurately determined and potentially coupled with drug resistance testing. Due to the high genetic variability of the hepatitis C virus, this can be a demanding task that can potentially be streamlined by viral whole-genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing as demonstrated by an article in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology by E. Thomson, C. L. C. Ip, A. Badhan, M. T. Christiansen, W. Adamson, et al. (J Clin Microbiol. 54:2455-2469, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00330-16). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Probabilistic viral quasispecies assembly

Viruses are pathogens that cause infectious diseases. The swarm of virions is subject to the host’s immune pressure and possibly antiviral therapy. It may escape this selective pressure and gain selective advantage by acquiring one or more of the genomic alterations: single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), loss or gain of one or more amino acids, large deletions, for example, due to alternative splicing, or recombination of different strains. Genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance testing is performed via sequencing. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies revolutionized assessing viral genetic diversity experimentally. In viral quasispecies analysis, there are two main goals: the identification of low-frequency variants and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of the Neethling-like lumpy skin disease virus strains obtained directly from three commercial live attenuated vaccines.

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes an economically important disease in cattle. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three LSDV strains obtained directly from the live attenuated vaccines: Lumpyvax (MSD Animal Health), Herbivac LS (Deltamune) and Lumpy Skin Disease Vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products). Copyright © 2016 Mathijs et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Recent advances on detection and characterization of fruit tree viruses using high-throughput sequencing technologies.

Perennial crops, such as fruit trees, are infected by many viruses, which are transmitted through vegetative propagation and grafting of infected plant material. Some of these pathogens cause severe crop losses and often reduce the productive life of the orchards. Detection and characterization of these agents in fruit trees is challenging, however, during the last years, the wide application of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies has significantly facilitated this task. In this review, we present recent advances in the discovery, detection, and characterization of fruit tree viruses and virus-like agents accomplished by HTS approaches. A high number of new viruses have…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Emergence of gyrovirus 3 in commercial broiler chickens with transmissible viral proventriculitis.

Gyrovirus 3 (GyV3) has been identified in faeces from children with acute gastroenteritis. However, whether GyV3 is prevalent in poultry has not been determined to date. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to isolate GyV3 from commercial broiler chickens with transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP) in China. The complete genome of the virus shares 98.4% sequence identity with the FecGy strain that causes acute gastroenteritis in children. Epidemiological investigation from 2013 to 2017 revealed that the infection rate of GyV3 reached 12.5% (42/336) in commercial broiler chickens with TVP, indicating that the infection of GyV3 was…

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Monday, January 23, 2017

Tutorial: Circular Consensus Sequence analysis application

This tutorial provides an overview of the Circular Consensus Sequence (CCS) analysis application. The CCS algorithm is used in applications that require distinguishing closely related DNA molecules in the same sample. Applications of CCS include profiling microbial communities, resolving viral populations and accurately identifying somatic variations within heterogeneous tumor cells.

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