September 22, 2019  |  

Major histocompatibility complex haplotyping and long-amplicon allele discovery in cynomolgus macaques from Chinese breeding facilities.

Very little is currently known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis; Mafa) from Chinese breeding centers. We performed comprehensive MHC class I haplotype analysis of 100 cynomolgus macaques from two different centers, with animals from different reported original geographic origins (Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Cambodian/Indonesian mixed-origin). Many of the samples were of known relation to each other (sire, dam, and progeny sets), making it possible to characterize lineage-level haplotypes in these animals. We identified 52 Mafa-A and 74 Mafa-B haplotypes in this cohort, many of which were restricted to specific sample origins. We also characterized full-length MHC class I transcripts using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RS II single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. This technology allows for complete read-through of unfragmented MHC class I transcripts (~1100 bp in length), so no assembly is required to unambiguously resolve novel full-length sequences. Overall, we identified 311 total full-length transcripts in a subset of 72 cynomolgus macaques from these Chinese breeding facilities; 130 of these sequences were novel and an additional 115 extended existing short database sequences to span the complete open reading frame. This significantly expands the number of Mafa-A, Mafa-B, and Mafa-I full-length alleles in the official cynomolgus macaque MHC class I database. The PacBio technique described here represents a general method for full-length allele discovery and genotyping that can be extended to other complex immune loci such as MHC class II, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, and Fc gamma receptors.

July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence and analysis of a stress-tolerant, wild-derived strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in biofuels research

The genome sequences of more than 100 strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been published. Unfortunately, most of these genome assemblies contain dozens to hundreds of gaps at repetitive sequences, including transposable elements, tRNAs, and subtelomeric regions, which is where novel genes generally reside. Relatively few strains have been chosen for genome sequencing based on their biofuel production potential, leaving an additional knowledge gap. Here, we describe the nearly complete genome sequence of GLBRCY22-3 (Y22-3), a strain of S. cerevisiae derived from the stress-tolerant wild strain NRRL YB-210 and subsequently engineered for xylose metabolism. After benchmarking several genome assembly approaches, we developed a pipeline to integrate Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) and Illumina sequencing data and achieved one of the highest quality genome assemblies for any S. cerevisiae strain. Specifically, the contig N50 is 693 kbp, and the sequences of most chromosomes, the mitochondrial genome, and the 2-micron plasmid are complete. Our annotation predicts 92 genes that are not present in the reference genome of the laboratory strain S288c, over 70% of which were expressed. We predicted functions for 43 of these genes, 28 of which were previously uncharacterized and unnamed. Remarkably, many of these genes are predicted to be involved in stress tolerance and carbon metabolism and are shared with a Brazilian bioethanol production strain, even though the strains differ dramatically at most genetic loci. The Y22-3 genome sequence provides an exceptionally high-quality resource for basic and applied research in bioenergy and genetics. Copyright © 2016 McIlwain et al.

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