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November 2, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens LLY_N11, a necrotic enteritis-inducing strain isolated from a healthy chicken intestine.

Clostridium perfringens strain LLY_N11, a commensal bacterium, which previously induced necrotic enteritis in an experimental study, was isolated from the intestine of a young healthy chicken. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, which may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in necrotic enteritis pathogenesis.

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November 1, 2017

The Mobile Element Locator Tool (MELT): population-scale mobile element discovery and biology.

Mobile element insertions (MEIs) represent ~25% of all structural variants in human genomes. Moreover, when they disrupt genes, MEIs can influence human traits and diseases. Therefore, MEIs should be fully discovered along with other forms of genetic variation in whole genome sequencing (WGS) projects involving population genetics, human diseases, and clinical genomics. Here, we describe the Mobile Element Locator Tool (MELT), which was developed as part of the 1000 Genomes Project to perform MEI discovery on a population scale. Using both Illumina WGS data and simulations, we demonstrate that MELT outperforms existing MEI discovery tools in terms of speed, scalability,…

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September 28, 2017

Whole-genome sequences of bacteremia isolates of Bordetella holmesii.

Bordetella holmesii causes respiratory and invasive diseases in humans, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We report here the genome sequences of seven bacteremia isolates of B. holmesii, including the type strain. Comparative analysis of these sequences may aid studies of B. holmesii biology and assist in the development of species-specific diagnostic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Tettelin et al.

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September 7, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 chromosome and plasmids, generated by long-read sequencing.

Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 was sequenced using a long-read method to generate a complete genome sequence, including some plasmid sequences. Some differences from the previously generated short-read sequence of this nonpathogenic and non-biofilm-forming strain were noted. The assembly size was 2,570,371 bp with a total G+C% content of 32.08%. Copyright © 2017 MacLea and Trachtenberg.

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September 1, 2017

Characterization of a large antibiotic resistance plasmid found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain B171 and its relatedness to plasmids of diverse E. coli and Shigella.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of severe infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Previous research has focused on the diversity of the EPEC virulence plasmid, whereas less is known regarding the genetic content and distribution of antibiotic resistance plasmids carried by EPEC. A previous study demonstrated that in addition to the virulence plasmid, reference EPEC strain B171 harbors a second, larger plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance. To further understand the genetic diversity and dissemination of antibiotic resistance plasmids among EPEC strains, we describe the complete sequence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from EPEC strain B171. The resistance plasmid,…

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August 1, 2017

A new method for sequencing the hypervariable Plasmodium falciparum gene var2csa from clinical samples.

VAR2CSA, a member of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, mediates the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A, a surface-associated molecule expressed in placental cells, and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. VAR2CSA is a target of naturally acquired immunity and, as such, is a leading vaccine candidate against placental malaria. This protein is very polymorphic and technically challenging to sequence. Published var2csa sequences, mostly limited to specific domains, have been generated through the sequencing of cloned PCR amplicons using capillary electrophoresis, a method that is both time consuming and…

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July 20, 2017

Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing-like strains revealed specific genetic variations associated with virulence and drug resistance.

Isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 2/East-Asian are considered one of the most successful strains due to their increased pathogenicity, hyper-virulence associated with drug resistance, and high transmission. Recent studies in Colombia have shown that the Beijing-like genotype is associated with multidrug-resistance and high prevalence in the southwest of the country, but the genetic basis of its success in dissemination is unknown. In contribution to this matter, we obtained the whole sequences of six genomes of clinical isolates assigned to the Beijing-like genotype. The genomes were compared with the reference genome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and 53 previously published M.…

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June 1, 2017

Iterative optimization of xylose catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using combinatorial expression tuning.

A common challenge in metabolic engineering is rapidly identifying rate-controlling enzymes in heterologous pathways for subsequent production improvement. We demonstrate a workflow to address this challenge and apply it to improving xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For eight reactions required for conversion of xylose to ethanol, we screened enzymes for functional expression in S. cerevisiae, followed by a combinatorial expression analysis to achieve pathway flux balancing and identification of limiting enzymatic activities. In the next round of strain engineering, we increased the copy number of these limiting enzymes and again tested the eight-enzyme combinatorial expression library in this new background.…

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June 1, 2017

Complete genome sequencing of Streptomyces sp. strain MOE7, which produces an extracellular polysaccharide with antioxidant and antitumor activities.

Streptomyces sp. strain MOE7 is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium isolated from agricultural soil in Columbia, Missouri, USA. Strain MOE7 produces an extracellular polysaccharide with antioxidant and antitumor activities. Through PacBio RSII sequencing, the MOE7 genome was found to be a linear chromosome of 8,399,509 bp with 6,782 protein-coding sequences. Copyright © 2017 Elnahas et al.

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April 20, 2017

Complete genome sequences of Mycobacterium kansasii strains isolated from rhesus macaques.

Mycobacterium kansasii is a nontuberculous mycobacterium. It causes opportunistic infections with pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations. We report here the complete genome sequences of two M. kansasii strains isolated from rhesus macaques. We performed genome comparisons with human and environmental isolates of M. kansasii to assess the genomic diversity of this species. Copyright © 2017 Panda et al.

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April 20, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis strain H87 isolated from an indoor water sample.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an environmentally acquired bacterium known to cause pulmonary and soft tissue infections, lymphadenitis, and disseminated disease in humans. We report here the complete genome sequence of strain H87, isolated from an indoor water sample, as a single circular chromosome of 5,626,623 bp with a G+C content of 68.8%. Copyright © 2017 Zhao et al.

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April 13, 2017

Fungal volatile compounds induce production of the secondary metabolite Sodorifen in Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C.

The ability of bacteria and fungi to communicate with each other is a remarkable aspect of the microbial world. It is recognized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act as communication signals, however the molecular responses by bacteria to fungal VOCs remain unknown. Here we perform transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C exposed to VOCs emitted by the fungal pathogen Fusarium culmorum. We find that the bacterium responds to fungal VOCs with changes in gene and protein expression related to motility, signal transduction, energy metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, and secondary metabolite production. Metabolomic analysis of the bacterium exposed to…

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April 6, 2017

Whole-genome sequences of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates exhibiting decreased meropenem susceptibility.

We report here paired isogenic Burkholderia pseudomallei genomes obtained from three patients receiving intravenous meropenem for melioidosis treatment, with post-meropenem isolates developing decreased susceptibility. Two genomes were finished, and four were drafted to improved high-quality standard. These genomes will be used to identify meropenem resistance mechanisms in B. pseudomallei. Copyright © 2017 Price et al.

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February 28, 2017

Diversity and activity of alternative nitrogenases in sequenced genomes and coastal environments.

The nitrogenase enzyme, which catalyzes the reduction of N2 gas to NH4(+), occurs as three separate isozyme that use Mo, Fe-only, or V. The majority of global nitrogen fixation is attributed to the more efficient 'canonical' Mo-nitrogenase, whereas Fe-only and V-('alternative') nitrogenases are often considered 'backup' enzymes, used when Mo is limiting. Yet, the environmental distribution and diversity of alternative nitrogenases remains largely unknown. We searched for alternative nitrogenase genes in sequenced genomes and used PacBio sequencing to explore the diversity of canonical (nifD) and alternative (anfD and vnfD) nitrogenase amplicons in two coastal environments: the Florida Everglades and Sippewissett…

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