September 22, 2019  |  

Comparative genomics of cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains with diverse spatial isolation.

Cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains are currently one of the few known cocci-shaped spore-forming bacteria, yet we know very little about the genomics. The goal of this study is to utilize comparative genomics to investigate the diversity of cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains that differ in their geographical isolation and show different nutritional requirements.For this study, we sequenced 28 genomes of cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains isolated from 13 different locations around the world. We generated the first six complete genomes and methylomes utilizing PacBio sequencing, and an additional 22 draft genomes using Illumina sequencing. Genomic analysis revealed that cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains contained an average genome of 3.3 Mb comprised of 3222 CDS, 54 tRNAs and 6 rRNAs, while only two strains contained plasmids. The cocci-shaped Sporosarcina genome on average contained 2.3 prophages and 15.6 IS elements, while methylome analysis supported the diversity of these strains as only one of 31 methylation motifs were shared under identical growth conditions. Analysis with a 90% identity cut-off revealed 221 core genes or ~?7% of the genome, while a 30% identity cut-off generated a pan-genome of 8610 genes. The phylogenetic relationship of the cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains based on either core genes, accessory genes or spore-related genes consistently resulted in the 29 strains being divided into eight clades.This study begins to unravel the phylogenetic relationship of cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains, and the comparative genomics of these strains supports identification of several new species.

September 22, 2019  |  

Structural variants exhibit allelic heterogeneity and shape variation in complex traits

Despite extensive effort to reveal the genetic basis of complex phenotypic variation, studies typically explain only a fraction of trait heritability. It has been hypothesized that individually rare hidden structural variants (SVs) could account for a significant fraction of variation in complex traits. To investigate this hypothesis, we assembled 14 Drosophila melanogaster genomes and systematically identified more than 20,000 euchromatic SVs, of which ~40% are invisible to high specificity short read genotyping approaches. SVs are common in Drosophila genes, with almost one third of diploid individuals harboring an SV in genes larger than 5kb, and nearly a quarter harboring multiple SVs in genes larger than 10kb. We show that SV alleles are rarer than amino acid polymorphisms, implying that they are more strongly deleterious. A number of functionally important genes harbor previously hidden structural variants that likely affect complex phenotypes (e.g., Cyp6g1, Drsl5, Cyp28d1&2, InR, and Gss1&2). Furthermore, SVs are overrepresented in quantitative trait locus candidate genes from eight Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource (DSPR) mapping experiments. We conclude that SVs are pervasive in genomes, are frequently present as heterogeneous allelic series, and can act as rare alleles of large effect.

July 19, 2019  |  

Landscape of standing variation for tandem duplications in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila simulans.

We have used whole genome paired-end Illumina sequence data to identify tandem duplications in 20 isofemale lines of Drosophila yakuba and 20 isofemale lines of D. simulans and performed genome wide validation with PacBio long molecule sequencing. We identify 1,415 tandem duplications that are segregating in D. yakuba as well as 975 duplications in D. simulans, indicating greater variation in D. yakuba. Additionally, we observe high rates of secondary deletions at duplicated sites, with 8% of duplicated sites in D. simulans and 17% of sites in D. yakuba modified with deletions. These secondary deletions are consistent with the action of the large loop mismatch repair system acting to remove polymorphic tandem duplication, resulting in rapid dynamics of gain and loss in duplicated alleles and a richer substrate of genetic novelty than has been previously reported. Most duplications are present in only single strains, suggesting that deleterious impacts are common. Drosophila simulans shows larger numbers of whole gene duplications in comparison to larger proportions of gene fragments in D. yakuba. Drosophila simulans displays an excess of high-frequency variants on the X chromosome, consistent with adaptive evolution through duplications on the D. simulans X or demographic forces driving duplicates to high frequency. We identify 78 chimeric genes in D. yakuba and 38 chimeric genes in D. simulans, as well as 143 cases of recruited noncoding sequence in D. yakuba and 96 in D. simulans, in agreement with rates of chimeric gene origination in D. melanogaster. Together, these results suggest that tandem duplications often result in complex variation beyond whole gene duplications that offers a rich substrate of standing variation that is likely to contribute both to detrimental phenotypes and disease, as well as to adaptive evolutionary change. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome sequence and variant analysis of W303, a widely-used strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as a superior model organism. Selection of distinct laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae with unique phenotypic properties, such as superior mating or sporulation efficiencies, has facilitated advancements in research. W303 is one such laboratory strain that is closely related to the first completely sequenced yeast strain, S288C. In this work, we provide a high-quality, annotated genome sequence for W303 for utilization in comparative analyses and genome-wide studies. Approximately 9500 variations exist between S288C and W303, affecting the protein sequences of ~700 genes. A listing of the polymorphisms and divergent genes is provided for researchers interested in identifying the genetic basis for phenotypic differences between W303 and S288C. Several divergent functional gene families were identified, including flocculation and sporulation genes, likely representing selection for desirable laboratory phenotypes. Interestingly, remnants of ancestor wine strains were found on several chromosomes. Finally, as a test of the utility of the high-quality reference genome, variant mapping revealed more accurate identification of accumulated mutations in passaged mismatch repair-defective strains. Copyright © 2017 Matheson et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Multiple and diverse vsp and vlp sequences in Borrelia miyamotoi, a hard tick-borne zoonotic pathogen.

Based on chromosome sequences, the human pathogen Borrelia miyamotoi phylogenetically clusters with species that cause relapsing fever. But atypically for relapsing fever agents, B. miyamotoi is transmitted not by soft ticks but by hard ticks, which also are vectors of Lyme disease Borrelia species. To further assess the relationships of B. miyamotoi to species that cause relapsing fever, I investigated extrachromosomal sequences of a North American strain with specific attention on plasmid-borne vsp and vlp genes, which are the underpinnings of antigenic variation during relapsing fever. For a hybrid approach to achieve assemblies that spanned more than one of the paralogous vsp and vlp genes, a database of short-reads from next-generation sequencing was supplemented with long-reads obtained with real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules. This yielded three contigs of 31, 16, and 11 kb, which each contained multiple and diverse sequences that were homologous to vsp and vlp genes of the relapsing fever agent B. hermsii. Two plasmid fragments had coding sequences for plasmid partition proteins that differed from each other from paralogous proteins for the megaplasmid and a small plasmid of B. miyamotoi. One of 4 vsp genes, vsp1, was present at two loci, one of which was downstream of a candiate prokaryotic promoter. A limited RNA-seq analysis of a population growing in the blood of mice indicated that of the 4 different vsp genes vsp1 was the one that was expressed. The findings indicate that B. miyamotoi has at least four types of plasmids, two or more of which bear vsp and vlp gene sequences that are as numerous and diverse as those of relapsing fever Borrelia. The database and insights from these findings provide a foundation for further investigations of the immune responses to this pathogen and of the capability of B. miyamotoi for antigenic variation.

July 7, 2019  |  

Chromosome and plasmids of the tick-borne relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii.

The zoonotic pathogen Borrelia hermsii bears its multiple paralogous genes for variable antigens on several linear plasmids. Application of combined long-read and short-read next-generation sequencing provided complete sequences for antigen-encoding plasmids as well as other linear and circular plasmids and the linear chromosome of the genome. Copyright © 2016 Barbour.

July 7, 2019  |  

Contiguous and accurate de novo assembly of metazoan genomes with modest long read coverage.

Genome assemblies that are accurate, complete and contiguous are essential for identifying important structural and functional elements of genomes and for identifying genetic variation. Nevertheless, most recent genome assemblies remain incomplete and fragmented. While long molecule sequencing promises to deliver more complete genome assemblies with fewer gaps, concerns about error rates, low yields, stringent DNA requirements and uncertainty about best practices may discourage many investigators from adopting this technology. Here, in conjunction with the platinum standard Drosophila melanogaster reference genome, we analyze recently published long molecule sequencing data to identify what governs completeness and contiguity of genome assemblies. We also present a hybrid meta-assembly approach that achieves remarkable assembly contiguity for both Drosophila and human assemblies with only modest long molecule sequencing coverage. Our results motivate a set of preliminary best practices for obtaining accurate and contiguous assemblies, a ‘missing manual’ that guides key decisions in building high quality de novo genome assemblies, from DNA isolation to polishing the assembly.© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

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