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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The genetic basis of anoxygenic photosynthetic arsenite oxidation.

‘Photoarsenotrophy’, the use of arsenite as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis, is thought to be an ancient form of phototrophy along with the photosynthetic oxidation of Fe(II), H2 S, H2 and NO2-. Photoarsenotrophy was recently identified from Paoha Island’s (Mono Lake, CA) arsenic-rich hot springs. The genomes of several photoarsenotrophs revealed a gene cluster, arxB2AB1CD, where arxA is predicted to encode for the sole arsenite oxidase. The role of arxA in photosynthetic arsenite oxidation was confirmed by disrupting the gene in a representative photoarsenotrophic bacterium, resulting in the loss of light-dependent arsenite oxidation. In situ evidence of active photoarsenotrophic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Fallacy of the unique genome: sequence diversity within single Helicobacter pylori strains.

Many bacterial genomes are highly variable but nonetheless are typically published as a single assembled genome. Experiments tracking bacterial genome evolution have not looked at the variation present at a given point in time. Here, we analyzed the mouse-passaged Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 and its parent PMSS1 to assess intra- and intergenomic variability. Using high sequence coverage depth and experimental validation, we detected extensive genome plasticity within these H. pylori isolates, including movement of the transposable element IS607, large and small inversions, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms, and variation in cagA copy number. The cagA gene was found as 1 to 4…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Dolosigranulum pigrum from a patient with interstitial lung disease using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology.

The whole genome sequence of Dolosigranulum pigrum isolated from the blood of a patient with interstitial lung disease was sequenced with the Pacific Biosciences RS II platform. The genome size is 2.1 Mb with 2,127 annotated coding sequences; it contained two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems. Copyright © 2017 Mukhopadhyay et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Divergent and convergent modes of interaction between wheat and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici isolates revealed by the comparative gene co-expression network and genome analyses.

Two opposing evolutionary constraints exert pressure on plant pathogens: one to diversify virulence factors in order to evade plant defenses, and the other to retain virulence factors critical for maintaining a compatible interaction with the plant host. To better understand how the diversified arsenals of fungal genes promote interaction with the same compatible wheat line, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of two North American isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt).The patterns of inter-isolate divergence in the secreted candidate effector genes were compared with the levels of conservation and divergence of plant-pathogen gene co-expression networks (GCN) developed for…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Detection of diazotrophy in the acetylene-fermenting anaerobe, Pelobacter strain SFB93.

Acetylene (C2H2) is a trace constituent of the present Earth’s oxidizing atmosphere, reflecting a mix of terrestrial and marine emissions from anthropogenic, biomass burning, and unidentified biogenic sources. Fermentation of acetylene was serendipitously discovered during C2H2-block assays of N2O reductase, and Pelobacter acetylenicus was shown to grow on C2H2 via acetylene hydratase (AH). AH is a W-containing, catabolic, low redox potential enzyme that unlike nitrogenase (N2ase) is specific for acetylene. Acetylene fermentation is a rare metabolism that is well-characterized only in P. acetylenicus DSM3246 and DSM3247, and Pelobacter sp. strain SFB93. To better understand the genetic controls on AH activity,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic analysis of Clavibacter michiganensis reveals insight into virulence strategies and genetic diversity of a gram-positive bacterial pathogen.

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen that proliferates in the xylem vessels of tomato, causing bacterial canker disease. In this study, we sequenced and assembled genomes of 11 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains isolated from infected tomato fields in California as well as five Clavibacter strains that colonize tomato endophytically but are not pathogenic in this host. The analysis of the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis genomes supported the monophyletic nature of this pathogen but revealed genetic diversity among strains, consistent with multiple introduction events. Two tomato endophytes that clustered phylogenetically with C. michiganensis strains capable of infecting…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Finished genome sequences of Xanthomonas fragariae, the cause of bacterial angular leaf spot of strawberry.

Xanthomonas fragariae is a foliar pathogen of strawberry that is of significant concern to nursery production of strawberry transplants and field production of strawberry fruit. Long-read sequencing was employed to generate finished genomes for two isolates (each with one chromosome and two plasmids) from symptomatic plants in northern California. Copyright © 2016 Henry and Leveau.

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