July 7, 2019  |  

Phylogeographical analysis of the dominant multidrug-resistant H58 clade of Salmonella Typhi identifies inter- and intracontinental transmission events.

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) typhoid is a major global health threat affecting many countries where the disease is endemic. Here whole-genome sequence analysis of 1,832 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) identifies a single dominant MDR lineage, H58, that has emerged and spread throughout Asia and Africa over the last 30 years. Our analysis identifies numerous transmissions of H58, including multiple transfers from Asia to Africa and an ongoing, unrecognized MDR epidemic within Africa itself. Notably, our analysis indicates that H58 lineages are displacing antibiotic-sensitive isolates, transforming the global population structure of this pathogen. H58 isolates can harbor a complex MDR element residing either on transmissible IncHI1 plasmids or within multiple chromosomal integration sites. We also identify new mutations that define the H58 lineage. This phylogeographical analysis provides a framework to facilitate global management of MDR typhoid and is applicable to similar MDR lineages emerging in other bacterial species.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi isolate PM016/13 from untreated well water associated with a Typhoid outbreak in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen that causes typhoid fever. Even though it is a human-restricted pathogen, the bacterium is also isolated from environments such as groundwater and pond water. Here, we describe the genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi PM016/13 which was isolated from well water during a typhoid outbreak in Kelantan, Malaysia, in 2013. Copyright © 2015 Muhamad Harish et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

A phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden, an emerging agent of diarrheal disease in tropical regions.

Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden (S. Weltevreden) is an emerging cause of diarrheal and invasive disease in humans residing in tropical regions. Despite the regional and international emergence of this Salmonella serovar, relatively little is known about its genetic diversity, genomics or virulence potential in model systems. Here we used whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to define the phylogenetic structure of a diverse global selection of S. Weltevreden. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 100 isolates demonstrated that the population of S. Weltevreden can be segregated into two main phylogenetic clusters, one associated predominantly with continental Southeast Asia and the other more internationally dispersed. Subcluster analysis suggested the local evolution of S. Weltevreden within specific geographical regions. Four of the isolates were sequenced using long read sequencing to produce high quality reference genomes. Phenotypic analysis in Hep-2 cells and in a murine infection model indicated that S. Weltevreden were significantly attenuated in these models compared to the classical S. Typhimurium reference strain SL1344. Our work outlines novel insights into this important emerging pathogen and provides a baseline understanding for future research studies.


July 7, 2019  |  

The emergence and intercontinental spread of a multidrug-resistant clade of typhoid agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

Multidrug-resistant typhoid is a global health problem. Previous studies conducted in countries of Asia and Africa have identified a highly clonal, multidrug-resistant lineage of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi), known as H58. However, little is known about the emergence and geographical spread of the H58 clade. In this study, we have used whole-genome sequencing of a global collection of S Typhi to investigate this highly successful lineage.


July 7, 2019  |  

Atypical Salmonella enterica serovars in murine and human infection models: Is it time to reassess our approach to the study of salmonellosis?

Nontyphoidal Salmonella species are globally disseminated pathogens and the predominant cause of gastroenteritis. The pathogenesis of salmonellosis has been extensively studied using in vivo murine models and cell lines typically challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium. Although serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are responsible for the most of human infections reported to the CDC, several other serovars also contribute to clinical cases of salmonellosis. Despite their epidemiological importance, little is known about their infection phenotypes. Here, we report the virulence characteristics and genomes of 10 atypical S. enterica serovars linked to multistate foodborne outbreaks in the United States. We show that the murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model of infection is unsuitable for inferring human relevant differences in nontyphoidal Salmonella infections whereas differentiated human THP-1 macrophages allowed these isolates to be further characterised in a more relevant, human context.


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