July 19, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence and analysis of Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis LOOC260(T), a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium isolated from silage.

Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis is an obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, which is isolated from Timothy grass silage in Hokkaido, a subarctic region of Japan. This bacterium is expected to be useful as a silage starter culture in cold regions because of its remarkable psychrotolerance; it can grow at temperatures as low as 4°C. To elucidate its genetic background, particularly in relation to the source of psychrotolerance, we constructed the complete genome sequence of L. hokkaidonensis LOOC260(T) using PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing technology.The genome of LOOC260(T) comprises one circular chromosome (2.28 Mbp) and two circular plasmids: pLOOC260-1 (81.6 kbp) and pLOOC260-2 (41.0 kbp). We identified diverse mobile genetic elements, such as prophages, integrated and conjugative elements, and conjugative plasmids, which may reflect adaptation to plant-associated niches. Comparative genome analysis also detected unique genomic features, such as genes involved in pentose assimilation and NADPH generation.This is the first complete genome in the L. vaccinostercus group, which is poorly characterized, so the genomic information obtained in this study provides insight into the genetics and evolution of this group. We also found several factors that may contribute to the ability of L. hokkaidonensis to grow at cold temperatures. The results of this study will facilitate further investigation for the cold-tolerance mechanism of L. hokkaidonensis.


July 19, 2019  |  

Single-molecule sequencing of the desiccation-tolerant grass Oropetium thomaeum.

Plant genomes, and eukaryotic genomes in general, are typically repetitive, polyploid and heterozygous, which complicates genome assembly. The short read lengths of early Sanger and current next-generation sequencing platforms hinder assembly through complex repeat regions, and many draft and reference genomes are fragmented, lacking skewed GC and repetitive intergenic sequences, which are gaining importance due to projects like the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the desiccation-tolerant grass Oropetium thomaeum. Using only single-molecule real-time sequencing, which generates long (>16?kilobases) reads with random errors, we assembled 99% (244?megabases) of the Oropetium genome into 625 contigs with an N50 length of 2.4?megabases. Oropetium is an example of a ‘near-complete’ draft genome which includes gapless coverage over gene space as well as intergenic sequences such as centromeres, telomeres, transposable elements and rRNA clusters that are typically unassembled in draft genomes. Oropetium has 28,466 protein-coding genes and 43% repeat sequences, yet with 30% more compact euchromatic regions it is the smallest known grass genome. The Oropetium genome demonstrates the utility of single-molecule real-time sequencing for assembling high-quality plant and other eukaryotic genomes, and serves as a valuable resource for the plant comparative genomics community.


July 19, 2019  |  

Genome sequencing: Long reads for a short plant

The genome of a tiny resurrection plant has been sequenced using PacBio’s long-read single-molecule real-time sequencing technology, aiding the understanding of extreme desiccation tolerance. The genome contiguity is comparable to that of genomes sequenced using far more laborious approaches.


July 19, 2019  |  

Insight into the recent genome duplication of the halophilic yeast Hortaea werneckii: combining an improved genome with gene expression and chromatin structure.

Extremophilic organisms demonstrate the flexibility and adaptability of basic biological processes by highlighting how cell physiology adapts to environmental extremes. Few eukaryotic extremophiles have been well studied and only a small number are amenable to laboratory cultivation and manipulation. A detailed characterization of the genome architecture of such organisms is important to illuminate how they adapt to environmental stresses. One excellent example of a fungal extremophile is the halophile Hortaea werneckii (Pezizomycotina, Dothideomycetes, Capnodiales), a yeast-like fungus able to thrive at near-saturating concentrations of sodium chloride and which is also tolerant to both UV irradiation and desiccation. Given its unique lifestyle and its remarkably recent whole genome duplication, H. werneckii provides opportunities for testing the role of genome duplications and adaptability to extreme environments. We previously assembled the genome of H. werneckii using short-read sequencing technology and found a remarkable degree of gene duplication. Technology limitations, however, precluded high-confidence annotation of the entire genome. We therefore revisited the H. wernickii genome using long-read, single-molecule sequencing and provide an improved genome assembly which, combined with transcriptome and nucleosome analysis, provides a useful resource for fungal halophile genomics. Remarkably, the ~50 Mb H. wernickii genome contains 15,974 genes of which 95% (7608) are duplicates formed by a recent whole genome duplication (WGD), with an average of 5% protein sequence divergence between them. We found that the WGD is extraordinarily recent, and compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the majority of the genome’s ohnologs have not diverged at the level of gene expression of chromatin structure. Copyright © 2017 Sinha et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae GGT036: a furfural tolerant soil bacterium.

Enterobacter cloacae is a facultative anaerobic bacterium to be an important cause of nosocomial infection. However, the isolated E. cloacae GGT036 showed higher furfural-tolerant cellular growth, compared to industrial relevant strains such as Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 isolated from Mt. Gwanak, Seoul, Republic of Korea. The genomic DNA sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 will provide valuable genetic resources for engineering of industrially relevant strains being tolerant to cellular inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence analysis of the naphthenic acid degrading and metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii CR3.

Cupriavidus sp. are generally heavy metal tolerant bacteria with the ability to degrade a variety of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, although the degradation pathways and substrate versatilities remain largely unknown. Here we studied the bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain CR3, which was isolated from a natural asphalt deposit, and which was shown to utilize naphthenic acids as a sole carbon source. Genome sequencing of C. gilardii CR3 was carried out to elucidate possible mechanisms for the naphthenic acid biodegradation. The genome of C. gilardii CR3 was composed of two circular chromosomes chr1 and chr2 of respectively 3,539,530 bp and 2,039,213 bp in size. The genome for strain CR3 encoded 4,502 putative protein-coding genes, 59 tRNA genes, and many other non-coding genes. Many genes were associated with xenobiotic biodegradation and metal resistance functions. Pathway prediction for degradation of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a representative naphthenic acid, suggested that naphthenic acid undergoes initial ring-cleavage, after which the ring fission products can be degraded via several plausible degradation pathways including a mechanism similar to that used for fatty acid oxidation. The final metabolic products of these pathways are unstable or volatile compounds that were not toxic to CR3. Strain CR3 was also shown to have tolerance to at least 10 heavy metals, which was mainly achieved by self-detoxification through ion efflux, metal-complexation and metal-reduction, and a powerful DNA self-repair mechanism. Our genomic analysis suggests that CR3 is well adapted to survive the harsh environment in natural asphalts containing naphthenic acids and high concentrations of heavy metals.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598, a non-type strain producing butanol.

The strain Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598 is non-type, oxygen tolerant, spore-forming, mesophilic and heterofermentative strain with high hydrogen production and ability of acetone-butanol fermentation (ethanol production being negligible). Here, we present the annotated complete genome sequence of this bacterium, replacing the previous draft genome assembly. The genome consisting of a single circular 6,186,879bp chromosome with no plasmid was determined using PacBio RSII and Roche 454 sequencing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the chromate-resistant bacterium Leucobacter salsicius type strain M1-8(T.).

Leucobacter salsicius M1-8(T) is a member of the Microbacteriaceae family within the class Actinomycetales. This strain is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium and was previously isolated from a Korean fermented food. Most members of the genus Leucobacter are chromate-resistant and this feature could be exploited in biotechnological applications. However, the genus Leucobacter is poorly characterized at the genome level, despite its potential importance. Thus, the present study determined the features of Leucobacter salsicius M1-8(T), as well as its genome sequence and annotation. The genome comprised 3,185,418 bp with a G+C content of 64.5%, which included 2,865 protein-coding genes and 68 RNA genes. This strain possessed two predicted genes associated with chromate resistance, which might facilitate its growth in heavy metal-rich environments.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genome sequencing reveals genomic signature of extreme desiccation tolerance in the anhydrobiotic midge.

Anhydrobiosis represents an extreme example of tolerance adaptation to water loss, where an organism can survive in an ametabolic state until water returns. Here we report the first comparative analysis examining the genomic background of extreme desiccation tolerance, which is exclusively found in larvae of the only anhydrobiotic insect, Polypedilum vanderplanki. We compare the genomes of P. vanderplanki and a congeneric desiccation-sensitive midge P. nubifer. We determine that the genome of the anhydrobiotic species specifically contains clusters of multi-copy genes with products that act as molecular shields. In addition, the genome possesses several groups of genes with high similarity to known protective proteins. However, these genes are located in distinct paralogous clusters in the genome apart from the classical orthologues of the corresponding genes shared by both chironomids and other insects. The transcripts of these clustered paralogues contribute to a large majority of the mRNA pool in the desiccating larvae and most likely define successful anhydrobiosis. Comparison of expression patterns of orthologues between two chironomid species provides evidence for the existence of desiccation-specific gene expression systems in P. vanderplanki.


July 7, 2019  |  

The genome sequence of Streptomyces lividans 66 reveals a novel tRNA-dependent peptide biosynthetic system within a metal-related genomic island.

The complete genome sequence of the original isolate of the model actinomycete Streptomyces lividans 66, also referred to as 1326, was deciphered after a combination of next-generation sequencing platforms and a hybrid assembly pipeline. Comparative analysis of the genomes of S. lividans 66 and closely related strains, including S. coelicolor M145 and S. lividans TK24, was used to identify strain-specific genes. The genetic diversity identified included a large genomic island with a mosaic structure, present in S. lividans 66 but not in the strain TK24. Sequence analyses showed that this genomic island has an anomalous (G + C) content, suggesting recent acquisition and that it is rich in metal-related genes. Sequences previously linked to a mobile conjugative element, termed plasmid SLP3 and defined here as a 94 kb region, could also be identified within this locus. Transcriptional analysis of the response of S. lividans 66 to copper was used to corroborate a role of this large genomic island, including two SLP3-borne “cryptic” peptide biosynthetic gene clusters, in metal homeostasis. Notably, one of these predicted biosynthetic systems includes an unprecedented nonribosomal peptide synthetase–tRNA-dependent transferase biosynthetic hybrid organization. This observation implies the recruitment of members of the leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA-protein transferase family to catalyze peptide bond formation within the biosynthesis of natural products. Thus, the genome sequence of S. lividans 66 not only explains long-standing genetic and phenotypic differences but also opens the door for further in-depth comparative genomic analyses of model Streptomyces strains, as well as for the discovery of novel natural products following genome-mining approaches.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the drought resistance-promoting endophyte Klebsiella sp. LTGPAF-6F.

Bacterial endophytes with capacity to promote plant growth and improve plant tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses have importance in agricultural practice and phytoremediation. A plant growth-promoting endophyte named Klebsiella sp. LTGPAF-6F, which was isolated from the roots of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia in north-west China, exhibits the ability to enhance the growth of wheat under drought stress. The complete genome sequence of this strain consists of one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. From the genome, we identified genes related to the plant growth promotion and stress tolerance, such as nitrogen fixation, production of indole-3-acetic acid, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, spermidine and trehalose. This genome sequence provides a basis for understanding the beneficial interactions between LTGPAF-6F and host plants, and will facilitate its applications as biotechnological agents in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Revealing the saline adaptation strategies of the halophilic bacterium Halomonas beimenensis through high-throughput omics and transposon mutagenesis approaches.

Studies on the halotolerance of bacteria are attractive to the fermentation industry. However, a lack of sufficient genomic information has precluded an investigation of the halotolerance of Halomonas beimenensis. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms of saline adaptation in H. beimenensis based on high-throughput omics and Tn5 transposon mutagenesis. The H. beimenensis genome is 4.05 Mbp and contains 3,807 genes, which were sequenced using short and long reads obtained via deep sequencing. Sixteen Tn5 mutants with a loss of halotolerance were identified. Orthologs of the mutated genes, such as nqrA, trkA, atpC, nadA, and gdhB, have significant biological functions in sodium efflux, potassium uptake, hydrogen ion transport for energy conversion, and compatible solute synthesis, which are known to control halotolerance. Other genes, such as spoT, prkA, mtnN, rsbV, lon, smpB, rfbC, rfbP, tatB, acrR1, and lacA, function in cellular signaling, quorum sensing, transcription/translation, and cell motility also shown critical functions for promoting a halotolerance. In addition, KCl application increased halotolerance and potassium-dependent cell motility in a high-salinity environment. Our results demonstrated that a combination of omics and mutagenesis could be used to facilitate the mechanistic exploitation of saline adaptation in H. beimenensis, which can be applied for biotechnological purposes.


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