April 21, 2020  |  

A High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu stricto SMCG1#C, a Causal Agent of Anthracnose on Cunninghamia lanceolata in China.

Colletotrichum has a broad host range and causes major yield losses of crops. The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is associated with anthracnose on Chinese fir. In this study, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence of C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto SMCG1#C, providing a reference genomic data for further research on anthracnose of Chinese fir and other hosts.


April 21, 2020  |  

The genome of broomcorn millet.

Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is the most water-efficient cereal and one of the earliest domesticated plants. Here we report its high-quality, chromosome-scale genome assembly using a combination of short-read sequencing, single-molecule real-time sequencing, Hi-C, and a high-density genetic map. Phylogenetic analyses reveal two sets of homologous chromosomes that may have merged ~5.6 million years ago, both of which exhibit strong synteny with other grass species. Broomcorn millet contains 55,930 protein-coding genes and 339 microRNA genes. We find Paniceae-specific expansion in several subfamilies of the BTB (broad complex/tramtrack/bric-a-brac) subunit of ubiquitin E3 ligases, suggesting enhanced regulation of protein dynamics may have contributed to the evolution of broomcorn millet. In addition, we identify the coexistence of all three C4 subtypes of carbon fixation candidate genes. The genome sequence is a valuable resource for breeders and will provide the foundation for studying the exceptional stress tolerance as well as C4 biology.


September 22, 2019  |  

Metataxonomics reveal vultures as a reservoir for Clostridium perfringens.

The Old World vulture may carry and spread pathogens for emerging infections since they feed on the carcasses of dead animals and participate in the sky burials of humans, some of whom have died from communicable diseases. Therefore, we studied the precise fecal microbiome of the Old World vulture with metataxonomics, integrating the high-throughput sequencing of almost full-length small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplicons in tandem with the operational phylogenetic unit (OPU) analysis strategy. Nine vultures of three species were sampled using rectal swabs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Using the Pacific Biosciences sequencing platform, we obtained 54 135 high-quality reads of 16S rRNA amplicons with an average of 1442±6.9?bp in length and 6015±1058 reads per vulture. Those sequences were classified into 314 OPUs, including 102 known species, 50 yet to be described species and 161 unknown new lineages of uncultured representatives. Forty-five species have been reported to be responsible for human outbreaks or infections, and 23 yet to be described species belong to genera that include pathogenic species. Only six species were common to all vultures. Clostridium perfringens was the most abundant and present in all vultures, accounting for 30.8% of the total reads. Therefore, using the new technology, we found that vultures are an important reservoir for C. perfringens as evidenced by the isolation of 107 strains encoding for virulence genes, representing 45 sequence types. Our study suggests that the soil-related C. perfringens and other pathogens could have a reservoir in vultures and other animals.


September 22, 2019  |  

Precise fecal microbiome of the herbivorous Tibetan antelope inhabiting high-altitude alpine plateau

The metataxonomic approach combining 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using the PacBio technology with the application of the operational phylogenetic unit (OPU) approach, has been used to analyze the fecal microbial composition of the high-altitude and herbivorous Tibetan antelopes. The fecal samples of the antelope were collected in Hoh Xil National Nature Reserve, at an altitude over 4500 m, the largest depopulated zone in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, where non-native animals or humans may experience life-threatening acute mountain sickness. In total, 104 antelope fecal samples were enrolled in this study, and were clustered into 61,258 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at an identity of 98.7% and affiliated with 757 OPUs, including 144 known species, 256 potentially new species, 103 potentially higher taxa within known lineages. In addition, 254 comprised sequences not affiliating with any known family, and the closest relatives were unclassified lineages of existing orders or classes. A total of 42 out of 757 OPUs conformed to the core fecal microbiome, of which four major lineages, namely, un-cultured Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Akkermansia and Christensenellaceae were associated with human health or longevity. The current study reveals that the fecal core microbiome of antelope is mainly composited of uncultured bacteria. The most abundant core taxa, namely, uncultured Ruminococcaceae, uncultured Akkermansia, uncultured Bacteroides, uncultured Christensenellaceae, uncultured Mollicutes, and uncultured Lachnospiraceae, may represent new bacterial candidates at high taxa levels, and several may have beneficial roles in health promotion or anti-intestinal dysbiosis. These organisms should be further isolated and evaluated for potential effect on human health and longevity.


July 7, 2019  |  

The complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar Hailuosis YWC2-8.

Bacillus thuringiensis, a typical aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, is an important microbial insecticide widely used in the control of agricultural pests. B. thuringiensis serovar Hailuosis YWC2-8 with high insecticidal activity against Diptera and Lepidoptera insects has three insecticidal crystal protein genes, such as cry4Cb2, cry30Ea2, and cry56Aa1. In this study, the complete genome sequence of B. thuringiensis YWC2-8 was analyzed, which contains one circular gapless chromosome and six circular plasmids. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Ruminococcaceae bacterium CPB6: A newly isolated culture for efficient n-caproic acid production from lactate.

n-caproic acid (CA) is a valuable chemical feedstock for various industrial applications. Biological production of CA from renewable carbon sources has attracted a lot of attentions recently. We lately reported the new culture Ruminococcaceae bacterium CPB6, which was isolated from a microbiome for efficient CA production from lactate. To further elucidate its metabolism, we sequenced the whole genome of the strain. The size of the complete genome is 2,069,994bp with 50.58% GC content; no plasmid was identified. Sets of genes involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis via acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA) as well as lactate oxidation/reduction pathways were identified in the genome. These genes were inferred to be correlated with the CA production. The complete genome sequence provides essential information for the elucidation of the metabolism for CA production from lactate, and further improvement of the strain through genetic engineering for enhanced CA production and other biotechnological purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

A high-quality genome assembly of quinoa provides insights into the molecular basis of salt bladder-based salinity tolerance and the exceptional nutritional value.

Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the ? paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots. The genome is highly repetitive (64.5% repeat content) and contains 54 438 protein-coding genes and 192 microRNA genes, with more than 99.3% having orthologous genes from glycophylic species. Stress tolerance in quinoa is associated with the expansion of genes involved in ion and nutrient transport, ABA homeostasis and signaling, and enhanced basal-level ABA responses. Epidermal salt bladder cells exhibit similar characteristics as trichomes, with a significantly higher expression of genes related to energy import and ABA biosynthesis compared with the leaf lamina. The quinoa genome sequence provides insights into its exceptional nutritional value and the evolution of halophytes, enabling the identification of genes involved in salinity tolerance, and providing the basis for molecular breeding in quinoa.


July 7, 2019  |  

pSY153-MDR, a p12969-DIM-related mega plasmid carrying blaIMP-45 and armA, from clinical Pseudomonas putida.

This work characterized mega plasmid pSY153-MDR, carrying blaIMP-45 and armA, from a multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas putida isolate from the urine of a cerebral infarction patient in China. The backbone of pSY153-MDR was closely related to Pseudomonas plasmids p12969-DIM, pOZ176, pBM413, pTTS12, and pRBL16, and could not be assigned to any of the known incompatibility groups. The accessory modules of pSY153-MDR were composed of 10 individual insertion sequence elements and two different MDR regions, and differed dramatically from the above plasmids. Fifteen non-redundant resistance markers were identified to be involved in resistance to at least eight distinct classes of antibiotics. All of these resistance genes were associated with mobile elements, and were embedded within the two MDR regions. blaIMP-45 and armA coexisted in a Tn1403-Tn1548 region, which was generated from homologous recombination of Tn1403- and Tn1548-like transposons. The second copy of armA was a component of the ISCR28-armA-?ISCR28 structure, representing a novel armA vehicle. This vehicle was located within In48, which was related to In363 and In1058. Data presented here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary history of SY153, especially in regard to how it became extensively drug-resistant.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequencing and diversity analysis of lipolytic enzymes in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OUC_Est10

[Objective] The aim of this study was to study the diversity of lipolytic enzymes in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OUC_Est10. [Methods] Ion exchange chromatography, genome sequencing and heterologous expression were used to study the diversity of lipolytic enzymes in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OUC_Est10. [Results] Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OUC_Est10 could secret a wide range of lipolytic enzymes (lipases and esterases) as revealed by ion exchange chromatography. The complete genome is of 4668743 bp in length, with an average GC content of 66.25%. Genome annotation indicated the presence of 33 candidate genes whose products possess the predicted lipolytic enzyme activities. Analysis of catalytic features was carried out by expressing five putative lipolytic enzyme genes, and lipolytic enzymes in OUC_Est10 had different catalytic properties. [Conclusion] We proved that Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OUC_Est10 was a good candidate to produce diverse lipolytic enzymes, with potential applications in various fields.


July 7, 2019  |  

Third-generation sequencing and analysis of four complete pig liver esterase gene sequences in clones identified by screening BAC library.

Pig liver carboxylesterase (PLE) gene sequences in GenBank are incomplete, which has led to difficulties in studying the genetic structure and regulation mechanisms of gene expression of PLE family genes. The aim of this study was to obtain and analysis of complete gene sequences of PLE family by screening from a Rongchang pig BAC library and third-generation PacBio gene sequencing.After a number of existing incomplete PLE isoform gene sequences were analysed, primers were designed based on conserved regions in PLE exons, and the whole pig genome used as a template for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Specific primers were then selected based on the PCR amplification results. A three-step PCR screening method was used to identify PLE-positive clones by screening a Rongchang pig BAC library and PacBio third-generation sequencing was performed. BLAST comparisons and other bioinformatics methods were applied for sequence analysis.Five PLE-positive BAC clones, designated BAC-10, BAC-70, BAC-75, BAC-119 and BAC-206, were identified. Sequence analysis yielded the complete sequences of four PLE genes, PLE1, PLE-B9, PLE-C4, and PLE-G2. Complete PLE gene sequences were defined as those containing regulatory sequences, exons, and introns. It was found that, not only did the PLE exon sequences of the four genes show a high degree of homology, but also that the intron sequences were highly similar. Additionally, the regulatory region of the genes contained two 720bps reverse complement sequences that may have an important function in the regulation of PLE gene expression.This is the first report to confirm the complete sequences of four PLE genes. In addition, the study demonstrates that each PLE isoform is encoded by a single gene and that the various genes exhibit a high degree of sequence homology, suggesting that the PLE family evolved from a single ancestral gene. Obtaining the complete sequences of these PLE genes provides the necessary foundation for investigation of the genetic structure, function, and regulatory mechanisms of the PLE gene family.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Bacillus megaterium strain YC4-R4, a plant growth- promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a high-salinity environment.

Here, we report the complete genome sequence for Bacillus megaterium strain YC4-R4, a highly salt-tolerant rhizobacterium that promotes growth in plants. The sequencing process was performed by combining pyrosequencing and single-molecule sequencing techniques. The complete genome is estimated to be approximately 5.44 Mb, containing a total of 5,673 predicted protein-coding DNA sequences (CDSs). Copyright © 2018 Vílchez et al.


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