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June 26, 2019

Application Brief: Long-read RNA sequencing – Best Practices

With Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and the Sequel Systems, you can easily and affordably sequence complete transcript isoforms in genes of interest or across the entire transcriptome. The Iso-Seq method allows users to generate full-length cDNA sequences up to 10 kb in length — with no assembly required — to confidently characterize full-length transcript isoforms.

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June 1, 2019

ORF Capture-Seq: a versatile method for targeted identification of full-length isoforms

Most human protein-coding genes are expressed as multiple isoforms. This in turn greatly expands the functional repertoire of the encoded proteome. While at least one reliable open reading frame (ORF) model has been assigned for every gene, the majority of alternative isoforms remains uncharacterized experimentally. This is primarily due to: i) vast differences of overall levels between different isoforms expressed from common genes, and ii) the difficulty of obtaining contiguous full-length ORF sequences. Here, we present ORF Capture-Seq (OCS), a flexible and cost-effective method that addresses both challenges for targeted full-length isoform sequencing applications using collections of cloned ORFs as…

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May 1, 2019

Targeted Long-Read RNA Sequencing Demonstrates Transcriptional Diversity Driven by Splice-Site Variation in MYBPC3.

To date, clinical sequencing has focused on genomic DNA using targeted panels and exome sequencing. Sequencing of a large hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohort revealed that positive identification of a disease-associated variant was returned in only 32% of patients, with an additional 15% receiving inconclusive results. When genome sequencing fails to reveal causative variants, the transcriptome may provide additional diagnostic clarity. A recent study examining patients with genetically undiagnosed muscle disorders found that RNA sequencing, when used as a complement to exome and whole genome sequencing, had an overall diagnosis rate of 35%.

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May 1, 2019

Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison

To better understand the subspecies origin of antibody genes in classical inbred mouse strains, the IGH gene loci of four wild-derived mouse strains were explored by analysis of VDJ gene rearrangements. A total of 341 unique IGHV gene sequences were inferred in the wild-derived strains, including 247 sequences that have not previously been reported. The genes of the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) strain were also documented, and all but one of the 84 inferred NOD IGHV genes have previously been observed in C57BL/6 mice. This is surprising because the Swiss mouse-derived NOD strain and the C57BL/6 strain have no known shared…

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April 1, 2019

Alternative Splicing of the Delta-Opioid Receptor Gene Suggests Existence of New Functional Isoforms.

The delta-opioid receptor (DOPr) participates in mediating the effects of opioid analgesics. However, no selective agonists have entered clinical care despite potential to ameliorate many neurological and psychiatric disorders. In an effort to address the drug development challenges, the functional contribution of receptor isoforms created by alternative splicing of the three-exonic coding gene, OPRD1, has been overlooked. We report that the gene is transcriptionally more diverse than previously demonstrated, producing novel protein isoforms in humans and mice. We provide support for the functional relevance of splice variants through context-dependent expression profiling (tissues, disease model) and conservation of the transcriptional landscape…

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April 1, 2019

NOVA1 directs PTBP1 to hTERT pre-mRNA and promotes telomerase activity in cancer cells.

Alternative splicing is dysregulated in cancer cells, driving the production of isoforms that allow tumor cells to survive and continuously proliferate. Part of the reactivation of telomerase involves the splicing of hTERT transcripts to produce full-length (FL) TERT. Very few splicing factors to date have been described to interact with hTERT and promote the production of FL TERT. We recently described one such splicing factor, NOVA1, that acts as an enhancer of FL hTERT splicing, increases telomerase activity, and promotes telomere maintenance in cancer cells. NOVA1 is expressed primarily in neurons and is involved in neurogenesis. In the present studies,…

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January 1, 2019

Immunogenetic factors driving formation of ultralong VH CDR3 in Bos taurus antibodies.

The antibody repertoire of Bos taurus is characterized by a subset of variable heavy (VH) chain regions with ultralong third complementarity determining regions (CDR3) which, compared to other species, can provide a potent response to challenging antigens like HIV env. These unusual CDR3 can range to over seventy highly diverse amino acids in length and form unique ß-ribbon 'stalk' and disulfide bonded 'knob' structures, far from the typical antigen binding site. The genetic components and processes for forming these unusual cattle antibody VH CDR3 are not well understood. Here we analyze sequences of Bos taurus antibody VH domains and find…

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January 1, 2019

Schizophrenia risk variants influence multiple classes of transcripts of sorting nexin 19 (SNX19).

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genomic loci associated with risk for schizophrenia, but unambiguous identification of the relationship between disease-associated variants and specific genes, and in particular their effect on risk conferring transcripts, has proven difficult. To better understand the specific molecular mechanism(s) at the schizophrenia locus in 11q25, we undertook cis expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) mapping for this 2 megabase genomic region using postmortem human brain samples. To comprehensively assess the effects of genetic risk upon local expression, we evaluated multiple transcript features: genes, exons, and exon-exon junctions in multiple brain regions-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), hippocampus,…

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January 1, 2019

NCF1 (p47phox)-deficient chronic granulomatous disease: comprehensive genetic and flow cytometric analysis.

Mutations in NCF1 (p47phox) cause autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) with abnormal dihydrorhodamine (DHR) assay and absent p47phox protein. Genetic identification of NCF1 mutations is complicated by adjacent highly conserved (>98%) pseudogenes (NCF1B and NCF1C). NCF1 has GTGT at the start of exon 2, whereas the pseudogenes each delete 1 GT (?GT). In p47phox CGD, the most common mutation is ?GT in NCF1 (c.75_76delGT; p.Tyr26fsX26). Sequence homology between NCF1 and its pseudogenes precludes reliable use of standard Sanger sequencing for NCF1 mutations and for confirming carrier status. We first established by flow cytometry that neutrophils from p47phox CGD patients…

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December 10, 2018

Tutorial: Iso-Seq analysis application [SMRT Link v6.0.0]

This tutorial provides an overview of the Isoform Sequence (Iso-Seq) analysis application. The Iso-Seq application provides reads that span entire transcript isoforms, from the 5' end to the 3' poly A-tail. Generation of accurate, full-length transcript sequences greatly simplifies analysis by eliminating the need for transcript reconstruction to infer isoforms using error-prone assembly of short RNA-seq reads. This tutorial covers features of SMRT Link v6.0.0.

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December 1, 2018

Fine mapping and candidate gene identification of the genic male-sterile gene ms3 in cabbage 51S.

The ms3 gene responsible for a male-sterile phenotype in cabbage was mapped to a 187.4-kb genomic fragment. The gene BoTPD1, a homolog of Arabidopsis TPD1, was identified as a strong candidate gene. Cabbage 51S is a spontaneous male-sterile mutant. Phenotypic investigation revealed defects in anther cell differentiation, with failure to form the tapetum layer and complete abortion of microsporocytes before the tetrad stage. Genetic analysis indicated that this male sterility was controlled by a single recessive gene, ms3. Using an F2 population, we mapped ms3 to a 187.4-kb interval. BoTPD1 was identified as a candidate from this interval. Sequence analysis…

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December 1, 2018

Extensive alternative splicing of KIR transcripts.

The killer-cell Ig-like receptors (KIR) form a multigene entity involved in modulating immune responses through interactions with MHC class I molecules. The complexity of the KIR cluster is reflected by, for instance, abundant levels of allelic polymorphism, gene copy number variation, and stochastic expression profiles. The current transcriptome study involving human and macaque families demonstrates that KIR family members are also subjected to differential levels of alternative splicing, and this seems to be gene dependent. Alternative splicing may result in the partial or complete skipping of exons, or the partial inclusion of introns, as documented at the transcription level. This…

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December 1, 2018

CRISPR/Cas9 deletions in a conserved exon of Distal-less generates gains and losses in a recently acquired morphological novelty in flies.

Distal-less has been repeatedly co-opted for the development of many novel traits. Here, we document its curious role in the development of a novel abdominal appendage ("sternite brushes") in sepsid flies. CRISPR/Cas9 deletions in the homeodomain result in losses of sternite brushes, demonstrating that Distal-less is necessary for their development. However, deletions in the upstream coding exon (Exon 2) produce losses or gains of brushes. A dissection of Exon 2 reveals that the likely mechanism for gains involves a deletion in an exon-splicing enhancer site that leads to exon skipping. Such contradictory phenotypes are also observed in butterflies, suggesting that…

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