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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Symbiosis island shuffling with abundant insertion sequences in the genomes of extra-slow-growing strains of soybean bradyrhizobia.

Extra-slow-growing bradyrhizobia from root nodules of field-grown soybeans harbor abundant insertion sequences (ISs) and are termed highly reiterated sequence-possessing (HRS) strains. We analyzed the genome organization of HRS strains with the focus on IS distribution and symbiosis island structure. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we consistently detected several plasmids (0.07 to 0.4 Mb) in the HRS strains (NK5, NK6, USDA135, 2281, USDA123, and T2), whereas no plasmids were detected in the non-HRS strain USDA110. The chromosomes of the six HRS strains (9.7 to 10.7 Mb) were larger than that of USDA110 (9.1 Mb). Using MiSeq sequences of 6 HRS and 17…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The genome of the Saprophytic fungus Verticillium tricorpus reveals a complex effector repertoire resembling that of its pathogenic relatives.

Vascular wilts caused by Verticillium spp. are destructive plant diseases affecting hundreds of hosts. Only a few Verticillium spp. are causal agents of vascular wilt diseases, of which V. dahliae is the most notorious pathogen, and several V. dahliae genomes are available. In contrast, V. tricorpus is mainly known as a saprophyte and causal agent of opportunistic infections. Based on a hybrid approach that combines second and third generation sequencing, a near-gapless V. tricorpus genome assembly was obtained. With comparative genomics, we sought to identify genomic features in V. dahliae that confer the ability to cause vascular wilt disease. Unexpectedly,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Photorhabdus temperata subsp. thracensis 39-8(T), an entomopathogenic bacterium for the improved commercial bioinsecticide.

Photorhabdus temperata subsp. thracensis 39-8(T), a symbiotic bacterium from an entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, is a novel bacterium harboring insect pathogenicity. Herein, we present the complete genome sequence of strain 39-8(T), which consists of one circular chromosome of 5,147,098bp with a GC content of 44.10%. This genetic information will provide insights into biotechnological applications of the genus Photorhabdus producing insecticidal toxins, leading to the enhanced commercial bioinsecticide in agricultural pest control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A rebeccamycin analog provides plasmid-encoded niche defense.

Bacterial symbionts of fungus-growing ants occupy a highly specialized ecological niche and face the constant existential threat of displacement by another strain of ant-adapted bacteria. As part of a systematic study of the small molecules underlying this fraternal competition, we discovered an analog of the antitumor agent rebeccamycin, a member of the increasingly important indolocarbazole family. While several gene clusters consistent with this molecule’s newly reported modification had previously been identified in metagenomic studies, the metabolite itself has been cryptic. The biosynthetic gene cluster for 9-methoxyrebeccamycin is encoded on a plasmid in a manner reminiscent of plasmid-derived peptide antimicrobials that…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum strain Tab4cT, a parasite of a horse fly, Haematopota sp. (Diptera: Tabanidae).

Spiroplasma turonicum was isolated from a Haematopota sp. fly in France. We report the nucleotide sequence of the circular chromosome of strain Tab4c(T). The genome information will facilitate evolutionary studies of spiroplasmas, including symbionts of insects and ticks and pathogens of plants, insects, crustaceans, and humans. Copyright © 2015 Davis et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain RPE67, a bacterial gut symbiont of the bean bug Riptortus pedestris.

Burkholderia sp. strain RPE67 is a bacterial symbiont isolated from a field-collected bean bug, Riptortus pedestris. To understand the genetic basis of the insect-microbe symbiosis, we performed whole-genome sequencing of the Burkholderia strain, revealing an 8.69-Mb genome consisting of three chromosomes and three plasmids. Copyright © 2014 Takeshita et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequencing of two Neorhizobium galegae strains reveals a noeT gene responsible for the unusual acetylation of the nodulation factors.

The species Neorhizobium galegae comprises two symbiovars that induce nodules on Galega plants. Strains of both symbiovars, orientalis and officinalis, induce nodules on the same plant species, but fix nitrogen only in their own host species. The mechanism behind this strict host specificity is not yet known. In this study, genome sequences of representatives of the two symbiovars were produced, providing new material for studying properties of N. galegae, with a special interest in genomic differences that may play a role in host specificity.The genome sequences confirmed that the two representative strains are much alike at a whole-genome level. Analysis…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequence of Serratia symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3T, a free-living symbiont of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae.

The gammaproteobacterium Serratia symbiotica is one of the major secondary symbionts found in aphids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3(T), previously isolated from the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. The 3.58-Mb genome sequence might provide new insights to understand the evolution of insect-microbe symbiosis. Copyright © 2014 Foray et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of Ensifer adhaerens OV14 provides insights into its ability as a novel vector for the genetic transformation of plant genomes.

Recently it has been shown that Ensifer adhaerens can be used as a plant transformation technology, transferring genes into several plant genomes when equipped with a Ti plasmid. For this study, we have sequenced the genome of Ensifer adhaerens OV14 (OV14) and compared it with those of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (C58) and Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 (1021); the latter of which has also demonstrated a capacity to genetically transform crop genomes, albeit at significantly reduced frequencies.The 7.7 Mb OV14 genome comprises two chromosomes and two plasmids. All protein coding regions in the OV14 genome were functionally grouped based on an eggNOG…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Enterobacter asburiae strain L1: complete genome and whole genome optical mapping analysis of a quorum sensing bacterium.

Enterobacter asburiae L1 is a quorum sensing bacterium isolated from lettuce leaves. In this study, for the first time, the complete genome of E. asburiae L1 was sequenced using the single molecule real time sequencer (PacBio RSII) and the whole genome sequence was verified by using optical genome mapping (OpGen) technology. In our previous study, E. asburiae L1 has been reported to produce AHLs, suggesting the possibility of virulence factor regulation which is quorum sensing dependent. This evoked our interest to study the genome of this bacterium and here we present the complete genome of E. asburiae L1, which carries…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Phylogenomic reconstruction indicates mitochondrial ancestor was an energy parasite.

Reconstruction of mitochondrial ancestor has great impact on our understanding of the origin of mitochondria. Previous studies have largely focused on reconstructing the last common ancestor of all contemporary mitochondria (proto-mitochondria), but not on the more informative pre-mitochondria (the last common ancestor of mitochondria and their alphaproteobacterial sister clade). Using a phylogenomic approach and leveraging on the increased taxonomic sampling of alphaproteobacterial and eukaryotic genomes, we reconstructed the metabolisms of both proto-mitochondria and pre-mitochondria. Our reconstruction depicts a more streamlined proto-mitochondrion than these predicted by previous studies, and revealed several novel insights into the mitochondria-derived eukaryotic metabolisms including the lipid…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The genome of the intracellular bacterium of the coastal bivalve, Solemya velum: a blueprint for thriving in and out of symbiosis

BACKGROUND:Symbioses between chemoautotrophic bacteria and marine invertebrates are rare examples of living systems that are virtually independent of photosynthetic primary production. These associations have evolved multiple times in marine habitats, such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents and reducing sediments, characterized by steep gradients of oxygen and reduced chemicals. Due to difficulties associated with maintaining these symbioses in the laboratory and culturing the symbiotic bacteria, studies of chemosynthetic symbioses rely heavily on culture independent methods. The symbiosis between the coastal bivalve, Solemya velum, and its intracellular symbiont is a model for chemosynthetic symbioses given its accessibility in intertidal environments and the ability…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of the dark pink pigmented Listia bainesii microsymbiont Methylobacterium sp. WSM2598.

Strains of a pink-pigmented Methylobacterium sp. are effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing microsymbionts of species of the African crotalarioid genus Listia. Strain WSM2598 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod isolated in 2002 from a Listia bainesii root nodule collected at Estcourt Research Station in South Africa. Here we describe the features of Methylobacterium sp. WSM2598, together with information and annotation of a high-quality draft genome sequence. The 7,669,765 bp draft genome is arranged in 5 scaffolds of 83 contigs, contains 7,236 protein-coding genes and 18 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE…

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