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August 1, 2017

Zinc resistance within swine associated methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates in the USA is associated with MLST lineage.

Zinc resistance in livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) sequence type (ST) 398 is primarily mediated by the czrC gene co-located with the mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance, within the type V SCCmec element. Because czrC and mecA are located within the same mobile genetic element, it has been suggested that the use of in feed zinc as an antidiarrheal agent has the potential to contribute to the emergence and spread of MRSA in swine through increased selection pressure to maintain the SCCmec element in isolates obtained from pigs. In this study we report the prevalence of the czrC gene…

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July 6, 2017

Expanding landscapes of the diversified mcr-1-bearing plasmid reservoirs.

Polymyxin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic that can disrupt bacterial cell membrane by interacting with its lipopolysaccharide molecules and is used as a last resort drug against lethal infections by the carbapenem-resistant superbugs (like NDM-1). However, global discovery of the MCR-1 colistin resistance dramatically challenges the newly renewed interest in colistin for clinical use.The mcr-1-harboring plasmids were acquired from swine and human Escherichia coli isolated in China, from 2015 to 2016, and subjected to Illumina PacBio RSII and Hi-Seq2000 for full genome sequencing. PCR was applied to close the gap of the assembled contigs. Ori-Finder was employed to predict the…

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January 15, 2017

High-quality, highly contiguous re-assembly of the pig genome

Many applications of high throughput sequencing rely on the availability of an accurate reference genome. Errors in the reference genome assembly increase the number of false-positives in downstream analyses. Recently, we have shown that over 33% of the current pig reference genome, Sscrofa10.2, is either misassembled or otherwise unreliable for genomic analyses. Additionally, ~10% of the bases in the assembly are Ns in gaps of an arbitrary size. Thousands of highly fragmented contigs remain unplaced and many genes are known to be missing from the assembly. Here we present a new assembly of the pig genome, Sscrofa11, assembled using 65X…

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November 10, 2016

Complete genome sequence of a colistin resistance gene (mcr-1)-bearing isolate of Escherichia coli from the United States.

Transmissible colistin resistance conferred by the mcr-1 gene-bearing IncI2 plasmid has been recently reported in Escherichia coli in the United States. We report here the completed genome sequence of a second E. coli strain isolated from swine in the United States that carried the mcr-1 gene on an IncI2-type plasmid. Copyright © 2016 Meinersmann et al.

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July 21, 2016

Complete genome sequence of highly virulent Haemophilus parasuis serotype 11 strain SC1401.

Haemophilus parasuis, a normal Gram-negative bacterium, may cause Glässer's disease and pneumonia in pigs. This study aims to identify the genes related to natural competence of the serotype 11 strain SC1401, which frequently shows competence and high pathogenicity. SC1401 shows many differences from strains without natural competence within the molecular basis. We performed complete genome sequencing together with restriction modification system analysis to lay the foundation for later study. Copyright © 2016 Dai et al.

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March 8, 2016

Population structure and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 sequence type 25 strains

Strains of serotype 2 Streptococcus suis are responsible for swine and human infections. Different serotype 2 genetic backgrounds have been defined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). However, little is known about the genetic diversity within each MLST sequence type (ST). Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to test the hypothesis that S. suis serotype 2 strains of the ST25 lineage are genetically heterogeneous. We evaluated 51 serotype 2 ST25 S. suis strains isolated from diseased pigs and humans in Canada, the United States of America, and Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing revealed numerous large-scale rearrangements in the ST25 genome, compared to the genomes…

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January 10, 2016

PAG Conference: Approaches taken, progress made, and enhanced utility of long read-based goat, swine, cattle and sheep reference genomes

Tim Smith, molecular geneticist at the USDA Agricutural Research Service (ARS) in Clay Center, Nebraska, and director of the U.S. Meat Animal Reseach Center Core Facilities, discusses the USDA's efforts to improve the goat, swine, cattle, and sheep genomes through long read-based de novoassemblies scaffolded with a variety of approaches. Recent advances in long-read sequencing, combined with new technologies for scaffolding the resulting contigs, have made it possible to make a significant change in the quality of genome assemblies for a very small fraction of the price required to create the originals. Although a change of reference genomes incurs cost,…

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September 1, 2015

Complex population structure and virulence differences among serotype 2 Streptococcus suis strains belonging to sequence type 28.

Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent. Serotype 2 strains are the most frequently associated with disease. However, not all serotype 2 lineages are considered virulent. Indeed, sequence type (ST) 28 serotype 2 S. suis strains have been described as a homogeneous group of low virulence. However, ST28 strains are often isolated from diseased swine in some countries, and at least four human ST28 cases have been reported. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing and animal infection models to test the hypothesis that the ST28 lineage comprises strains of different genetic backgrounds and different virulence. We used…

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February 19, 2015

Sequence analysis of Staphylococcus hyicus ATCC 11249T, an etiological agent of exudative epidermitis in swine, reveals a type VII secretion system locus and a novel 116-kilobase genomic island harboring toxin-encoding genes.

Staphylococcus hyicus is the primary etiological agent of exudative epidermitis in swine. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of the type strain revealed a locus encoding a type VII secretion system and a large chromosomal island harboring the genes encoding exfoliative toxin ExhA and an EDIN toxin homolog. Copyright © 2015 Calcutt et al.

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