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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Interchromosomal core duplicons drive both evolutionary instability and disease susceptibility of the Chromosome 8p23.1 region.

Recurrent rearrangements of Chromosome 8p23.1 are associated with congenital heart defects and developmental delay. The complexity of this region has led to inconsistencies in the current reference assembly, confounding studies of genetic variation. Using comparative sequence-based approaches, we generated a high-quality 6.3-Mbp alternate reference assembly of an inverted Chromosome 8p23.1 haplotype. Comparison with nonhuman primates reveals a 746-kbp duplicative transposition and two separate inversion events that arose in the last million years of human evolution. The breakpoints associated with these rearrangements map to an ape-specific interchromosomal core duplicon that clusters at sites of evolutionary inversion (P = 7.8 × 10(-5)).…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

An ethnically relevant consensus Korean reference genome is a step towards personal reference genomes.

Human genomes are routinely compared against a universal reference. However, this strategy could miss population-specific and personal genomic variations, which may be detected more efficiently using an ethnically relevant or personal reference. Here we report a hybrid assembly of a Korean reference genome (KOREF) for constructing personal and ethnic references by combining sequencing and mapping methods. We also build its consensus variome reference, providing information on millions of variants from 40 additional ethnically homogeneous genomes from the Korean Personal Genome Project. We find that the ethnically relevant consensus reference can be beneficial for efficient variant detection. Systematic comparison of human…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

STR-realigner: a realignment method for short tandem repeat regions.

In the estimation of repeat numbers in a short tandem repeat (STR) region from high-throughput sequencing data, two types of strategies are mainly taken: a strategy based on counting repeat patterns included in sequence reads spanning the region and a strategy based on estimating the difference between the actual insert size and the insert size inferred from paired-end reads. The quality of sequence alignment is crucial, especially in the former approaches although usual alignment methods have difficulty in STR regions due to insertions and deletions caused by the variations of repeat numbers.We proposed a new dynamic programming based realignment method…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

SRinversion: a tool for detecting short inversions by splitting and re-aligning poorly mapped and unmapped sequencing reads.

Rapid development in sequencing technologies has dramatically improved our ability to detect genetic variants in human genome. However, current methods have variable sensitivities in detecting different types of genetic variants. One type of such genetic variants that is especially hard to detect is inversions. Analysis of public databases showed that few short inversions have been reported so far. Unlike reads that contain small insertions or deletions, which will be considered through gap alignment, reads carrying short inversions often have poor mapping quality or are unmapped, thus are often not further considered. As a result, the majority of short inversions might…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

svclassify: a method to establish benchmark structural variant calls.

The human genome contains variants ranging in size from small single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to large structural variants (SVs). High-quality benchmark small variant calls for the pilot National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Material (NA12878) have been developed by the Genome in a Bottle Consortium, but no similar high-quality benchmark SV calls exist for this genome. Since SV callers output highly discordant results, we developed methods to combine multiple forms of evidence from multiple sequencing technologies to classify candidate SVs into likely true or false positives. Our method (svclassify) calculates annotations from one or more aligned bam files…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A comprehensive model of DNA fragmentation for the preservation of High Molecular Weight DNA

During DNA extraction the DNA molecule undergoes physical and chemical shearing, causing the DNA to fragment into shorter and shorter pieces. Under common laboratory conditions this fragmentation yields DNA fragments of 5-35 kilobases (kb) in length. This fragment length is more than sufficient for DNA sequencing using short-read technologies which generate reads 50-600 bp in length, but insufficient for long-read sequencing and linked reads where fragment lengths of more than 40 kb may be desirable. This study provides a theoretical framework for quality management to ensure access to high molecular weight DNA in samples. Shearing can be divided into physical…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Supergene evolution triggered by the introgression of a chromosomal inversion.

Supergenes are groups of tightly linked loci whose variation is inherited as a single Mendelian locus and are a common genetic architecture for complex traits under balancing selection [1-8]. Supergene alleles are long-range haplotypes with numerous mutations underlying distinct adaptive strategies, often maintained in linkage disequilibrium through the suppression of recombination by chromosomal rearrangements [1, 5, 7-9]. However, the mechanism governing the formation of supergenes is not well understood and poses the paradox of establishing divergent functional haplotypes in the face of recombination. Here, we show that the formation of the supergene alleles encoding mimicry polymorphism in the butterfly Heliconius…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

FusorSV: an algorithm for optimally combining data from multiple structural variation detection methods.

Comprehensive and accurate identification of structural variations (SVs) from next generation sequencing data remains a major challenge. We develop FusorSV, which uses a data mining approach to assess performance and merge callsets from an ensemble of SV-calling algorithms. It includes a fusion model built using analysis of 27 deep-coverage human genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project. We identify 843 novel SV calls that were not reported by the 1000 Genomes Project for these 27 samples. Experimental validation of a subset of these calls yields a validation rate of 86.7%. FusorSV is available at https://github.com/TheJacksonLaboratory/SVE .

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

GtTR: Bayesian estimation of absolute tandem repeat copy number using sequence capture and high throughput sequencing.

Tandem repeats comprise significant proportion of the human genome including coding and regulatory regions. They are highly prone to repeat number variation and nucleotide mutation due to their repetitive and unstable nature, making them a major source of genomic variation between individuals. Despite recent advances in high throughput sequencing, analysis of tandem repeats in the context of complex diseases is still hindered by technical limitations. We report a novel targeted sequencing approach, which allows simultaneous analysis of hundreds of repeats. We developed a Bayesian algorithm, namely – GtTR – which combines information from a reference long-read dataset with a short…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Meeting report: mobile genetic elements and genome plasticity 2018

The Mobile Genetic Elements and Genome Plasticity conference was hosted by Keystone Symposia in Santa Fe, NM USA, February 11–15, 2018. The organizers were Marlene Belfort, Evan Eichler, Henry Levin and Lynn Maquat. The goal of this conference was to bring together scientists from around the world to discuss the function of transposable elements and their impact on host species. Central themes of the meeting included recent innovations in genome analysis and the role of mobile DNA in disease and evolution. The conference included 200 scientists who participated in poster presentations, short talks selected from abstracts, and invited talks. A…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

STRetch: detecting and discovering pathogenic short tandem repeat expansions.

Short tandem repeat (STR) expansions have been identified as the causal DNA mutation in dozens of Mendelian diseases. Most existing tools for detecting STR variation with short reads do so within the read length and so are unable to detect the majority of pathogenic expansions. Here we present STRetch, a new genome-wide method to scan for STR expansions at all loci across the human genome. We demonstrate the use of STRetch for detecting STR expansions using short-read whole-genome sequencing data at known pathogenic loci as well as novel STR loci. STRetch is open source software, available from github.com/Oshlack/STRetch .

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mitochondrial genomes of two diplectanids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) expose paraphyly of the order Dactylogyridea and extensive tRNA gene rearrangements.

Recent mitochondrial phylogenomics studies have reported a sister-group relationship of the orders Capsalidea and Dactylogyridea, which is inconsistent with previous morphology- and molecular-based phylogenies. As Dactylogyridea mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are currently represented by only one family, to improve the phylogenetic resolution, we sequenced and characterized two dactylogyridean parasites, Lamellodiscus spari and Lepidotrema longipenis, belonging to a non-represented family Diplectanidae.The L. longipenis mitogenome (15,433 bp) contains the standard 36 flatworm mitochondrial genes (atp8 is absent), whereas we failed to detect trnS1, trnC and trnG in L. spari (14,614 bp). Both mitogenomes exhibit unique gene orders (among the Monogenea), with a number…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Picky comprehensively detects high-resolution structural variants in nanopore long reads.

Acquired genomic structural variants (SVs) are major hallmarks of cancer genomes, but they are challenging to reconstruct from short-read sequencing data. Here we exploited the long reads of the nanopore platform using our customized pipeline, Picky ( https://github.com/TheJacksonLaboratory/Picky ), to reveal SVs of diverse architecture in a breast cancer model. We identified the full spectrum of SVs with superior specificity and sensitivity relative to short-read analyses, and uncovered repetitive DNA as the major source of variation. Examination of genome-wide breakpoints at nucleotide resolution uncovered micro-insertions as the common structural features associated with SVs. Breakpoint density across the genome is associated…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

iMGEins: detecting novel mobile genetic elements inserted in individual genomes.

Recent advances in sequencing technology have allowed us to investigate personal genomes to find structural variations, which have been studied extensively to identify their association with the physiology of diseases such as cancer. In particular, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are one of the major constituents of the human genomes, and cause genome instability by insertion, mutation, and rearrangement.We have developed a new program, iMGEins, to identify such novel MGEs by using sequencing reads of individual genomes, and to explore the breakpoints with the supporting reads and MGEs detected. iMGEins is the first MGE detection program that integrates three algorithmic components:…

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