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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Global phylogenomic analysis of nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals a deep-branching classic lineage that is distinct from multiple sporadic lineages.

The surrounding capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as a major virulence factor and is targeted by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). However, nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (non-Ec-Sp) have also been isolated globally, mainly in carriage studies. It is unknown if non-Ec-Sp evolve sporadically, if they have high antibiotic nonsusceptiblity rates and a unique, specific gene content. Here, whole-genome sequencing of 131 non-Ec-Sp isolates sourced from 17 different locations around the world was performed. Results revealed a deep-branching classic lineage that is distinct from multiple sporadic lineages. The sporadic lineages clustered with a previously sequenced, global collection of encapsulated S. pneumoniae…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of three multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A with different susceptibilities to the myxobacterial metabolite carolacton.

The full-genome sequences of three drug- and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates of serotype 19A were determined by PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing, in combination with Illumina MiSeq sequencing. A comparison to the genomes of other pneumococci indicates a high nucleotide sequence identity to strains Hungary19A-6 and TCH8431/19A. Copyright © 2017 Donner et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The complete genome sequence of the yogurt isolate Streptococcus thermophilus ACA-DC 2.

Streptococcus thermophilus ACA-DC 2 is a newly sequenced strain isolated from traditional Greek yogurt. Among the 14 fully sequenced strains of S. thermophilus currently deposited in the NCBI database, the ACA-DC 2 strain has the smallest chromosome, containing 1,731,838 bp. The annotation of its genome revealed the presence of 1,850 genes, including 1,556 protein-coding genes, 70 RNA genes and 224 potential pseudogenes. A large number of pseudogenes were identified. This was also accompanied by the absence of pathogenic features suggesting evolution of strain ACA-DC 2 through genome decay processes, most probably due to adaptation to the milk ecosystem. Analysis revealed the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Perturbations of phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (CdsA) mediate daptomycin resistance in Streptococcus mitis by a novel mechanism.

Streptococcus mitis/oralis is an important pathogen, causing life-threatening infections such as endocarditis and severe sepsis in immunocompromised patients. The ß-lactam antibiotics are the usual therapy of choice for this organism, but their effectiveness is threatened by the frequent emergence of resistance. The lipopeptide daptomycin (DAP) has been suggested for therapy against such resistant S. mitis/oralis strains due to its in vitro bactericidal activity and demonstrated efficacy against other Gram-positive pathogens. Unlike other bacteria, however, S. mitis/oralis has the unique ability to rapidly develop stable, high-level resistance to DAP upon exposure to the drug both in vivo and in vitro Using…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Regulation of PI-2b pilus expression in hypervirulent Streptococcus agalactiae ST-17 BM110.

The widely spread Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B Streptococcus, GBS) “hypervirulent” ST17 clone is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. The PI-2b locus is mainly found in ST17 strains but is also present in a few non ST17 human isolates such as the ST-7 prototype strain A909. Here, we analysed the expression of the PI-2b pilus in the ST17 strain BM110 as compared to the non ST17 A909. Comparative genome analyses revealed the presence of a 43-base pair (bp) hairpin-like structure in the upstream region of PI-2b operon in all 26 ST17 genomes, which was absent in the 8…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing strain Streptococcus thermophilus APC151.

Here is presented the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus APC151, isolated from a marine fish. This bacterium produces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in high yields and is biotechnologically suitable to produce naturally GABA-enriched biofunctional yogurt. Its complete genome comprises 2,097 genes and 1,839,134 nucleotides, with an average G+C content of 39.1%. Copyright © 2017 Linares et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

2015 epidemic of severe Streptococcus agalactiae sequence type 283 infections in Singapore associated with the consumption of raw freshwater fish: a detailed analysis of clinical, epidemiological, and bacterial sequencing data.

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) has not been described as a foodborne pathogen. However, in 2015, a large outbreak of severe invasive sequence type (ST) 283 GBS infections in adults epidemiologically linked to the consumption of raw freshwater fish occurred in Singapore. We attempted to determine the scale of the outbreak, define the clinical spectrum of disease, and link the outbreak to contaminated fish.Time-series analysis was performed on microbiology laboratory data. Food handlers and fishmongers were screened for enteric carriage of GBS. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess differences in demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome evolution to penicillin resistance in serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae by capsular switching.

Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates of serotype 3 were collected from cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (n= 124) throughout Japan between April 2010 and March 2013. A penicillin-resistantS. pneumoniae(PRSP) isolate from an adult patient, strain KK0981 of serotype 3, was identified among these strains. Whole-genome analysis characterized this PRSP as a recombinant strain derived from PRSP of serotype 23F with thecpslocus (20.3 kb) replaced by that of a penicillin-susceptible strain of serotype 3. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Parallel evolution of group B Streptococcus hypervirulent clonal complex 17 unveils new pathoadaptive mutations.

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, while a prevailing cause of neonatal disease worldwide. Of the various clonal complexes (CCs), CC17 is overrepresented in GBS-infected newborns for reasons that are still largely unknown. Here, we report a comprehensive genomic analysis of 626 CC17 isolates collected worldwide, identifying the genetic traits behind their successful adaptation to humans and the underlying differences between carriage and clinical strains. Comparative analysis with 923 GBS genomes belonging to CC1, CC19, and CC23 revealed that the evolution of CC17 is distinct from that of other human-adapted lineages and recurrently…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus tigurinus strain osk_001, isolated from postmortem material.

Streptococcus tigurinus was recently described as a novel species, and some strains are highly virulent. We detected S. tigurinus in infected tissue sampled by necropsy. In order to characterize and confirm the virulence of this species, whole-genome sequencing of the pure cultured bacterium was performed. We found that the strain has specific and unique genetic elements contained in highly virulent strains of S. tigurinus. Copyright © 2017 Yoshizawa et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Gene acquisition by a distinct phyletic group within Streptococcus pneumoniae promotes adhesion to the ocular epithelium.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) displays broad tissue tropism and infects multiple body sites in the human host. However, infections of the conjunctiva are limited to strains within a distinct phyletic group with multilocus sequence types ST448, ST344, ST1186, ST1270, and ST2315. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of six pneumococcal strains isolated from eye infections. The conjunctivitis isolates are grouped in a distinct phyletic group together with a subset of nasopharyngeal isolates. The keratitis (infection of the cornea) and endophthalmitis (infection of the vitreous body) isolates are grouped with the remainder of pneumococcal strains. Phenotypic characterization is consistent with morphological…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus strain B59671, which naturally produces the broad-spectrum bacteriocin thermophilin 110.

Streptococcus thermophilus strain B59671 is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that naturally produces a broad-spectrum bacteriocin, thermophilin 110, and is capable of producing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The complete genome sequence for this strain contains 1,821,173 nucleotides, 1,936 predicted genes, and an average G+C content of 39.1%.

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