June 1, 2021  |  

New advances in SMRT Sequencing facilitate multiplexing for de novo and structural variant studies

The latest advancements in Sequel II SMRT Sequencing have increased average read lengths up to 50% compared to Sequel II chemistry 1.0 which allows multiplexing of 2-3 small organisms (<500 Mb) such as insects and worms for producing reference quality assemblies, calling structural variants for up to 2 samples with ~3 Gb genomes, analysis of 48 microbial genomes, and up to 8 communities for metagenomic profiling in a single SMRT Cell 8M. With the improved processivity of the new Sequel II sequencing polymerase, more SMRTbell molecules reach rolling circle mode resulting in longer overall read lengths, thus allowing efficient detection of barcodes (up to 80%) in the SMRTbell templates. Multiplexing of genomes larger than microbial organisms is now achievable. In collaboration with the Wellcome Sanger Institute, we have developed a workflow for multiplexing two individual Anopheles coluzzii using as low as 150 ng genomic DNA per individual. The resulting assemblies had high contiguity (contig N50s over 3 Mb) and completeness (>98% of conserved genes) for both individuals. For microbial multiplexing, we multiplexed 48 microbes with varying complexities and sizes ranging 1.6-8.0 Mb in single SMRT Cell 8M. Using a new end-to-end analysis (Microbial Assembly Analysis, SMRT Link 8.0), assemblies resulted in complete circularized genomes (>200-fold coverage) and efficient detection of >3-200 kb plasmids. Finally, the long read lengths (>90 kb) allows detection of barcodes in large insert SMRTbell templates (>15 kb) thus facilitating multiplex of two human samples in 1 SMRT Cell 8M for detecting SVs, Indels and CNVs. Here, we present results and describe workflows for multiplexing samples for specific applications for SMRT Sequencing.

June 1, 2021  |  

Unbiased characterization of metagenome composition and function using HiFi sequencing on the PacBio Sequel II System

Recent work comparing metagenomic sequencing methods indicates that a comprehensive picture of the taxonomic and functional diversity of complex communities will be difficult to achieve with one sequencing technology alone. While the lower cost of short reads has enabled greater sequencing depth, the greater contiguity of long-read assemblies and lack of GC bias in SMRT Sequencing has enabled better gene finding. However, since long-read assembly typically requires high coverage for error correction, these benefits have in the past been lost for low-abundance species. The introduction of the Sequel II System has enabled a new, higher throughput, assembly-optional data type that addresses these challenges: HiFi reads. HiFi reads combine QV20 accuracy with long read lengths, eliminating the need for assembly for most metagenome applications, including gene discovery and metabolic pathway reconstruction. In fact, the read lengths and accuracy of HiFi data match or outperform the quality metrics of most metagenome assemblies, enabling cost-effective recovery of intact genes and operons while omitting the resource intensive and data-inefficient assembly step. Here we present the application of HiFi sequencing to both mock and human fecal samples using full-length 16S and shotgun methods. This proof-of-concept work demonstrates the unique strengths of the HiFi method. First, the high correspondence between the expected community composition,16S and shotgun profiling data reflects low context bias. In addition, every HiFi read yields ~5-8 predicted genes, without assembly, using standard tools. If assembly is desired, excellent results can be achieved with Canu and contig binning tools. In summary, HiFi sequencing is a new, cost-effective option for high-resolution functional profiling of metagenomes which complements existing short read workflows.

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