July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Halocynthiibacter arcticus PAMC 20958(T) from an Arctic marine sediment sample.

Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of the strain PAMC 20958(T) from the genus Halocynthiibacter. Halocynthiibacter arcticus PAMC 20958(T), isolated from a marine sediment of the Arctic, is a gram-negative, aerobic, and rod-shaped bacterium. The complete genome contains 4,329,554 base pairs with 53.21% GC content and a 44,566 base pair plasmid with 48.72% GC content. This genome contained genes encoding alkaline phosphatase and lipase, and genes that confer resistance to arsenic, cadmium, tellurite, and acriflavin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_023 isolated from raw fish storage water.

Vibrio parahaemolyticusis a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes food-borne gastroenteritis in humans who consumeV. parahaemolyticus-contaminated seafood.The FORC_023 strain was isolated from raw fish storage water, containing live fish at a sashimi restaurant. Here, we aimed to sequence and characterize the genome of the FORC_023 strain. The genome of the FORC_023 strain showed two circular chromosomes, which contained 4227 open reading frames (ORFs), 131 tRNA genes and 37 rRNA genes. Although the genome of FORC_023 did not include major virulence genes, such as genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), it contained genes encoding other hemolysins, secretion systems, iron uptake-related proteins and severalV. parahaemolyticusislands. The highest average nucleotide identity value was obtained between the FORC_023 strain and UCM-V493 (CP007004-6). Comparative genomic analysis of FORC_023 with UCM-V493 revealed that FORC_023 carried an additional genomic region encoding virulence factors, such as repeats-in-toxin and type II secretion factors. Furthermore,in vitrocytotoxicity testing showed that FORC_023 exhibited a high level of cytotoxicity toward INT-407 human epithelial cells. These results suggested that the FORC_023 strain may be a food-borne pathogen.© FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio vulnificus FORC_017 isolated from a patient with a hemorrhagic rash after consuming raw dotted gizzard shad.

Vibrio vulnificus, a resident in the human gut, is frequently found in seafood, causing food-borne illnesses including gastroenteritis and severe septicemia. While V. vulnificus has been known to be one of the major food-borne pathogens, pathogenicity and virulence factors are not fully understood yet. To extend our understanding of the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus at the genomic level, the genome of V. vulnificus FORC_017 isolated from a female patient experiencing a hemorrhagic rash was completely sequenced and analyzed.Three discontinuous contigs were generated from a hybrid assembly using Illumina MiSeq and PacBio platforms, revealing that the genome of the FORC_017 consists of two circular chromosomes and a plasmid. Chromosome I consists of 3,253,417-bp (GC content 46.49 %) containing 2943 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) and chromosome II of 1,905,745-bp (GC content 46.90 %) containing 1638 ORFs. The plasmid pFORC17 consists of 70,069-bp (GC content 43.77 %) containing 84 ORFs. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value of the FORC_017 and CMCP6 strains was 98.53, suggesting that they are closely related.Pathogenesis-associated genes including vvhA, rtx gene cluster, and various hemolysin genes were present in FORC_017. In addition, three complete secretion systems (Type I, II and VI) as well as iron uptake-related genes for virulence of the FORC_017 were detected, suggesting that this strain is pathogenic. Further comparative genome analysis revealed that FORC_017 and CMCP6 share major toxin genes including vvhA and rtx for pathogenesis activities. The genome information of the FORC_017 provides novel insights into pathogenicity and virulence factors of V. vulnificus.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genomic analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae KP617 and PittNDM01, NUHL24835, and ATCC BAA-2146 reveals unique evolutionary history of this strain.

Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae KP617 is a pathogenic strain that coproduces OXA-232 and NDM-1 carbapenemases. We sequenced the genome of KP617, which was isolated from the wound of a Korean burn patient, and performed a comparative genomic analysis with three additional strains: PittNDM01, NUHL24835 and ATCC BAA-2146.The complete genome of KP617 was obtained via multi-platform whole-genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis along with whole genome and multi-locus sequence typing of genes of the Klebsiella pneumoniae species showed that KP617 belongs to the WGLW2 group, which includes PittNDM01 and NUHL24835. Comparison of annotated genes showed that KP617 shares 98.3 % of its genes with PittNDM01. Nineteen antibiotic resistance genes were identified in the KP617 genome: bla OXA-1 and bla SHV-28 in the chromosome, bla NDM-1 in plasmid 1, and bla OXA-232 in plasmid 2 conferred resistance to beta-lactams; however, colistin- and tetracycline-resistance genes were not found. We identified 117 virulence factors in the KP617 genome, and discovered that the genes encoding these factors were also harbored by the reference strains; eight genes were lipopolysaccharide-related and four were capsular polysaccharide-related. A comparative analysis of phage-associated regions indicated that two phage regions are specific to the KP617 genome and that prophages did not act as a vehicle for transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in this strain.Whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed similarity in the genome sequences and content, and differences in phage-related genes, plasmids and antimicrobial resistance genes between KP617 and the references. In order to elucidate the precise role of these factors in the pathogenicity of KP617, further studies are required.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus oceanisediminis 2691, a reservoir of heavy-metal resistance genes.

Ocean sediments are commonly subject to the pollution of various heavy metals. Intracellular heavy metal concentrations in marine microorganisms should be kept within allowable concentrations. Here, we report redundant heavy metal resistance related genes encoding heavy metal-sensing transcriptional regulators (i.e. cadC), heavy metal efflux pumps, and detoxifying enzymes in the complete genome sequence of Bacillus oceanisediminis 2691. By comparing CadC sequences of strain 2691 with those from other bacterial genomes, we demonstrated that each cadC gene located in the chromosome or plasmid of 2691 cells are similar to those of various near or distant microbes, which might shed light on evolutionary trajectories of redundant heavy metal resistance genes. In application aspects, these diverse heavy metal sensing genes can be harnessed as synthetic biological parts, modules, and devices for the development of heavy metal-specific biosensors. Heavy metal bioremediation technologies or platform cells can be also developed based on the marine genomic information of heavy metal resistance and/or detoxification genes in a bacterial isolate from ocean sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC014 isolated from the toothfish.

Foodborne illness can occur due to various pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and can cause severe gastroenteritis symptoms. In this study, we completed the genome sequence of a foodborne pathogen V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014, which was isolated from suspected contaminated toothfish from South Korea. Additionally, we extended our knowledge of genomic characteristics of the FORC_014 strain through comparative analysis using the complete sequences of other V. parahaemolyticus strains whose complete genomes have previously been reported.The complete genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014 was generated using the PacBio RS platform with single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing. The FORC_014 strain consists of two circular chromosomes (3,241,330 bp for chromosome 1 and 1,997,247 bp for chromosome 2), one plasmid (51,383 bp), and one putative phage sequence (96,896 bp). The genome contains a total of 4274 putative protein coding sequences, 126 tRNA genes and 34 rRNA genes. Furthermore, we found 33 type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) related proteins and 15 type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) related proteins on chromosome 1. This is the first reported result of Type III secretion system 2 located on chromosome 1 of V. parahaemolyticus without thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh).Through investigation of the complete genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014, which differs from previously reported strains, we revealed two type III secretion systems (T3SS1, T3SS2) located on chromosome 1 which do not include tdh and trh genes. We also identified several virulence factors carried by our strain, including iron uptake system, hemolysin and secretion system. This result suggests that the FORC_014 strain may be one pathogen responsible for foodborne illness outbreak. Our results provide significant genomic clues which will assist in future understanding of virulence at the genomic level and help distinguish between clinical and non-clinical isolates.


July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome de novo sequencing, combined with RNA-Seq analysis, reveals unique genome and physiological features of the amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and its interspecies hybrid.

Genomic studies on fungal species with hydrolytic activity have gained increased attention due to their great biotechnological potential for biomass-based biofuel production. The amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera has served as a good source of enzymes and genes involved in saccharification. Despite its long history of use in food fermentation and bioethanol production, very little is known about the basic physiology and genomic features of S. fibuligera.We performed whole-genome (WG) de novo sequencing and complete assembly of S. fibuligera KJJ81 and KPH12, two isolates from wheat-based Nuruk in Korea. Intriguingly, the KJJ81 genome (~38 Mb) was revealed as a hybrid between the KPH12 genome (~18 Mb) and another unidentified genome sharing 88.1% nucleotide identity with the KPH12 genome. The seven chromosome pairs of KJJ81 subgenomes exhibit highly conserved synteny, indicating a very recent hybridization event. The phylogeny inferred from WG comparisons showed an early divergence of S. fibuligera before the separation of the CTG and Saccharomycetaceae clades in the subphylum Saccharomycotina. Reconstructed carbon and sulfur metabolic pathways, coupled with RNA-Seq analysis, suggested a marginal Crabtree effect under high glucose and activation of sulfur metabolism toward methionine biosynthesis under sulfur limitation in this yeast. Notably, the lack of sulfate assimilation genes in the S. fibuligera genome reflects a unique phenotype for Saccharomycopsis clades as natural sulfur auxotrophs. Extended gene families, including novel genes involved in saccharification and proteolysis, were identified. Moreover, comparative genome analysis of S. fibuligera ATCC 36309, an isolate from chalky rye bread in Germany, revealed that an interchromosomal translocation occurred in the KPH12 genome before the generation of the KJJ81 hybrid genome.The completely sequenced S. fibuligera genome with high-quality annotation and RNA-Seq analysis establishes an important foundation for functional inference of S. fibuligera in the degradation of fermentation mash. The gene inventory facilitates the discovery of new genes applicable to the production of novel valuable enzymes and chemicals. Moreover, as the first gapless genome assembly in the genus Saccharomycopsis including members with desirable traits for bioconversion, the unique genomic features of S. fibuligera and its hybrid will provide in-depth insights into fungal genome dynamics as evolutionary adaptation.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of a commensal bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis CBA7120, isolated from a Korean fecal sample.

Enterococcus faecalis, the type strain of the genus Enterococcus, is not only a commensal bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract in vertebrates and invertebrates, but also causes serious disease as an opportunistic pathogen. To date, genome sequences have been published for over four hundred E. faecalis strains; however, pathogenicity of these microbes remains complicated. To increase our knowledge of E. faecalis virulence factors, we isolated strain CBA7120 from the feces of an 81-year-old female from the Republic of Korea and performed a comparative genomic analysis.The genome sequence of E. faecalis CBA7120 is 3,134,087 bp in length, with a G + C content of 37.35 mol%, and is comprised of four contigs with an N50 value of 2,922,046 bp. The genome showed high similarity with other strains of E. faecalis, including OG1RF, T13, 12107 and T20, based on OrthoANI values. Strain CBA7120 contains 374 pan-genome orthologous groups (POGs) as singletons, including “Phages, Prophages, Transposable elements, Plasmids,” “Carbohydrates,” “DNA metabolism,” and “Virulence, Disease and Defense” subsystems. Genes related to multidrug resistance efflux pumps were annotated in the genome.The comparative genomic analysis of E. faecalis strains presented in this study was performed using a variety of analysis methods and will facilitate future identification of hypothetical proteins.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP4 and identification of evolutionarily divergent genes in high-osmolarity environment.

Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the widely-used probiotics and there have been a large number of advanced researches on the effectiveness of this species. However, the difference between previously reported plantarum strains, and the source of genomic variation among the strains were not clearly specified. In order to understand further on the molecular basis of L. plantarum on Korean traditional fermentation, we isolated the L. plantarum GB-LP4 from Korean fermented vegetable and conducted whole genome assembly. With comparative genomics approach, we identified the candidate genes that are expected to have undergone evolutionary acceleration. These genes have been reported to associate with the maintaining homeostasis, which are generally known to overcome instability in external environment including low pH or high osmotic pressure. Here, our results provide an evolutionary relationship between L. plantarum species and elucidate the candidate genes that play a pivotal role in evolutionary acceleration of GB-LP4 in high osmolarity environment. This study may provide guidance for further studies on L. plantarum.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequences of two cyanobacterial strains, toxic green Microcystis aeruginosa KW (KCTC 18162P) and nontoxic brown Microcystis sp. strain MC19, under xenic culture conditions.

Bloom-forming cyanobacteria pose concerns for the environment and the health of humans and animals by producing toxins and thus lowering water quality. Here, we report near-complete genome sequences of two Microcystis strains under xenic culture conditions, which were originally isolated from two separate freshwater reservoirs from the Republic of Korea. Copyright © 2018 Jeong et al.


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