July 7, 2019  |  

IncI1 plasmids encoding various blaCTX-Ms contributed to ceftriaxone resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis in China.

Resistance to extended spectrum ß-lactams in Salmonella, in particular serotypes such as S. Enteritidis that are frequently associated with clinical infections, is a serious public health concern. In this study, phenotypic characterization of 433 clinical S. Enteritidis strains obtained from a nationwide collection of China CDC during the period of 2005~2010 depicted an increasing trend of resistance to ceftriaxone from 2008 onwards. Seventeen (4%) of the strains were found to be resistant to ceftriaxone, 7% to ciprofloxacin and 0.7% to both ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Most of the ceftriaxone-resistant S. Enteritidis strains (15/17) were genetically unrelated, and originated from Henan province. The complete sequence of an IncI1 plasmid pSE115 which belonged to a novel Sequence Type was obtained. This 87,255bp IncI1 plasmid was found to harbour a blaCTX-M-14 gene located in a novel Multidrug Resistance Region (MRR) within the tra locus. Although the majority of strains were also found to contain conjugative IncI1 plasmids of similar size to pSE115(~90kb) and harbor a variety of blaCTX-MGroup 1 and Group 9 elements, the novel MRR site at the tra locus in pSE115 was not detectable in the other IncI1 plasmids. Findings in this study show that cephalosporin resistance in S. Enteritidis strains collected in China was mainly due to dissemination of blaCTX-M-encoding IncI1 plasmids, resembling the situation in which IncI1 plasmids serve as major vectors of blaCTX-M variants in other members of Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains associated with a multistate food-borne illness investigation.

Next-generation sequencing is being evaluated for use with food-borne illness investigations, especially when the outbreak strains produce patterns that cannot be discriminated from non-outbreak strains using conventional procedures. Here we report complete genome assemblies of two Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains with a common pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern isolated during an outbreak investigation.


July 7, 2019  |  

First complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC 13311 (NCTC 74), a reference strain of multidrug resistance, as achieved by use of PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time technology.

We report the first complete genomic sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC 13311, the leading food-borne pathogen and a reference strain used in drug resistance studies. De novo assembly with PacBio sequencing completed its chromosome and one plasmid. They will accelerate the investigation into multidrug resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium. Copyright © 2014 Terabayashi et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Integrative analysis of Salmonellosis in Israel reveals association of Salmonella enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- with extraintestinal infections, dissemination of endemic S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 biotypes, and severe underreporting of outbreaks.

Salmonella enterica is the leading etiologic agent of bacterial food-borne outbreaks worldwide. This ubiquitous species contains more than 2,600 serovars that may differ in their host specificity, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology. To characterize salmonellosis epidemiology in Israel and to study the association of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars with invasive infections, 48,345 Salmonella cases reported and serotyped at the National Salmonella Reference Center between 1995 and 2012 were analyzed. A quasi-Poisson regression was used to identify irregular clusters of illness, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in conjunction with whole-genome sequencing was applied to molecularly characterize strains of interest. Three hundred twenty-nine human salmonellosis clusters were identified, representing an annual average of 23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 20 to 26) potential outbreaks. We show that the previously unsequenced S. enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- belongs to the B clade of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, and we show its frequent association with extraintestinal infections, compared to other NTS serovars. Furthermore, we identified the dissemination of two prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 clones in Israel, which are genetically distinct from other global DT104 isolates. Accumulatively, these findings indicate a severe underreporting of Salmonella outbreaks in Israel and provide insights into the epidemiology and genomics of prevalent serovars, responsible for recurring illness. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

First fully closed genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana associated with a food-borne outbreak.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana (Salmonella serovar Cubana) is associated with human and animal disease. Here, we used third-generation, single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing to determine the first complete genome sequence of Salmonella serovar Cubana CFSAN002050, which was isolated from fresh alfalfa sprouts during a multistate outbreak in 2012. Copyright © 2014 Hoffmann et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

An evaluation of alternative methods for constructing phylogenies from whole genome sequence data: a case study with Salmonella.

Comparative genomics based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly being applied to investigate questions within evolutionary and molecular biology, as well as questions concerning public health (e.g., pathogen outbreaks). Given the impact that conclusions derived from such analyses may have, we have evaluated the robustness of clustering individuals based on WGS data to three key factors: (1) next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform (HiSeq, MiSeq, IonTorrent, 454, and SOLiD), (2) algorithms used to construct a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) matrix (reference-based and reference-free), and (3) phylogenetic inference method (FastTreeMP, GARLI, and RAxML). We carried out these analyses on 194 whole genome sequences representing 107 unique Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Montevideo strains. Reference-based approaches for identifying SNPs produced trees that were significantly more similar to one another than those produced under the reference-free approach. Topologies inferred using a core matrix (i.e., no missing data) were significantly more discordant than those inferred using a non-core matrix that allows for some missing data. However, allowing for too much missing data likely results in a high false discovery rate of SNPs. When analyzing the same SNP matrix, we observed that the more thorough inference methods implemented in GARLI and RAxML produced more similar topologies than FastTreeMP. Our results also confirm that reproducibility varies among NGS platforms where the MiSeq had the lowest number of pairwise differences among replicate runs. Our investigation into the robustness of clustering patterns illustrates the importance of carefully considering how data from different platforms are combined and analyzed. We found clear differences in the topologies inferred, and certain methods performed significantly better than others for discriminating between the highly clonal organisms investigated here. The methods supported by our results represent a preliminary set of guidelines and a step towards developing validated standards for clustering based on whole genome sequence data.


July 7, 2019  |  

High resolution assembly and characterization of genomes of Canadian isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis.

There is a need to characterize genomes of the foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and identify genetic information that could be ultimately deployed for differentiating strains of the organism, a need that is yet to be addressed mainly because of the high degree of clonality of the organism. In an effort to achieve the first characterization of the genomes of SE of Canadian origin, we carried out massively parallel sequencing of the nucleotide sequence of 11 SE isolates obtained from poultry production environments (n?=?9), a clam and a chicken, assembled finished genomes and investigated diversity of the SE genome.The median genome size was 4,678,683 bp. A total of 4,833 chromosomal genes defined the pan genome of our field SE isolates consisting of 4,600 genes present in all the genomes, i.e., core genome, and 233 genes absent in at least one genome (accessory genome). Genome diversity was demonstrable by the presence of 1,360 loci showing single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core genome which was used to portray the genetic distances by means of a phylogenetic tree for the SE isolates. The accessory genome consisted mostly of previously identified SE prophage sequences as well as two, apparently full-sized, novel prophages namely a 28 kb sequence provisionally designated as SE-OLF-10058 (3) prophage and a 43 kb sequence provisionally designated as SE-OLF-10012 prophage.The number of SNPs identified in the relatively large core genome of SE is a reflection of substantial diversity that could be exploited for strain differentiation as shown by the development of an informative phylogenetic tree. Prophage sequences can also be exploited for SE strain differentiation and lineage tracking. This work has laid the ground work for further studies to develop a readily adoptable laboratory test for the subtyping of SE.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Salmonella bongori strain N268-08, a rare clinical isolate.

Salmonella bongori is a close relative of the highly virulent members of S. enterica subspecies enterica, encompassing more than 2,500 serovars, most of which cause human salmonellosis, one of the leading food-borne illnesses. S. bongori is only very rarely implicated in infections. We here present the sequence of a clinical isolate from Switzerland, S. bongori strain N268-08.


July 7, 2019  |  

Combining de novo and reference-guided assembly with scaffold_builder.

Genome sequencing has become routine, however genome assembly still remains a challenge despite the computational advances in the last decade. In particular, the abundance of repeat elements in genomes makes it difficult to assemble them into a single complete sequence. Identical repeats shorter than the average read length can generally be assembled without issue. However, longer repeats such as ribosomal RNA operons cannot be accurately assembled using existing tools. The application Scaffold_builder was designed to generate scaffolds – super contigs of sequences joined by N-bases – based on the similarity to a closely related reference sequence. This is independent of mate-pair information and can be used complementarily for genome assembly, e.g. when mate-pairs are not available or have already been exploited. Scaffold_builder was evaluated using simulated pyrosequencing reads of the bacterial genomes Escherichia coli 042, Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi str. P-stx-12. Moreover, we sequenced two genomes from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 G455 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SDT1291 and show that Scaffold_builder decreases the number of contig sequences by 53% while more than doubling their average length. Scaffold_builder is written in Python and is available at http://edwards.sdsu.edu/scaffold_builder. A web-based implementation is additionally provided to allow users to submit a reference genome and a set of contigs to be scaffolded.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium var. 5- strain isolated from chicken breast.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of salmonellosis. Here, we report a closed genome sequence, including sequences of 3 plasmids, of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium var. 5- CFSAN001921 (National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System [NARMS] strain ID N30688), which was isolated from chicken breast meat and shows resistance to 10 different antimicrobials. Whole-genome and plasmid sequence analyses of this isolate will help enhance our understanding of this pathogenic multidrug-resistant serovar.


July 7, 2019  |  

Prevalence and molecular characterization of mcr-1-positive Salmonella strains recovered from clinical specimens in China.

The recently discovered colistin resistance element, mcr-1, adds to the list of antimicrobial resistance genes that rapidly erode the antimicrobial efficacy of not only the commonly used antibiotics but also the last-line agents of carbapenems and colistin. This study investigated the prevalence of the mobile colistin resistance determinant mcr-1 in Salmonella strains recovered from clinical settings in China and the transmission potential of mcr-1-bearing mobile elements harbored by such isolates. The mcr-1 gene was recoverable in 1.4% of clinical isolates tested, with the majority of them belonging to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. These isolates exhibited diverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles and high resistance to antibiotics other than colistin and particularly to cephalosporins. Plasmid analysis showed that mcr-1 was carried on a variety of plasmids with sizes ranging from ~30 to ~250 kb, among which there were conjugative plasmids of ~30 kb, ~60 kb, and ~250 kb and nonconjugative plasmids of ~140 kb, ~180 kb, and ~240 kb. Sequencing of representative mcr-1-carrying plasmids revealed that all conjugative plasmids belonged to the IncX4, IncI2, and IncHI2 types and were highly similar to the corresponding types of plasmids reported previously. Nonconjugative plasmids all belonged to the IncHI2 type, and the nontransferability of these plasmids was attributed to the loss of a region carrying partial or complete tra genes. Our data revealed that, similar to the situation in Escherichia coli, mcr-1 transmission in Salmonella was accelerated by various plasmids, suggesting that transmission of mcr-1-carrying plasmids between different species of Enterobacteriaceae may be a common event. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the thermotolerant foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg ATCC 43845 and phylogenetic analysis of loci encoding increased protein quality control mechanisms.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are important foodborne pathogens with major economic impact. Some isolates exhibit increased heat tolerance, a concern for food safety. Analysis of a finished-quality genome sequence of an isolate commonly used in heat resistance studies, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg 775W (ATCC 43845), demonstrated an interesting observation that this strain contains not just one, but two horizontally acquired thermotolerance locus homologs. These two loci reside on a large 341.3-kbp plasmid that is similar to the well-studied IncHI2 R478 plasmid but lacks any antibiotic resistance genes found on R478 or other IncHI2 plasmids. As this historical Salmonella isolate has been in use since 1941, comparative analysis of the plasmid and of the thermotolerance loci contained on the plasmid will provide insight into the evolution of heat resistance loci as well as acquisition of resistance determinants in IncHI2 plasmids. IMPORTANCE Thermal interventions are commonly used in the food industry as a means of mitigating pathogen contamination in food products. Concern over heat-resistant food contaminants has recently increased, with the identification of a conserved locus shown to confer heat resistance in disparate lineages of Gram-negative bacteria. Complete sequence analysis of a historical isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, used in numerous studies because of its novel heat resistance, revealed that this important strain possesses two distinct copies of this conserved thermotolerance locus, residing on a multireplicon IncHI2/IncHI2A plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis of these loci in comparison with homologs identified in various bacterial genera provides an opportunity to examine the evolution and distribution of loci conferring resistance to environmental stressors, such as heat and desiccation.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis strains isolated from egg products in the United States.

Egg-associated salmonellosis is an important public health problem in many countries. Here, we report the genome sequences, including plasmids, of two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from egg products in 2012 and 2013 in the United States. This will provide more information and insight into the research about egg-associated salmonellosis. Copyright © 2017 Hu et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic characterization of a large plasmid containing a bla NDM-1 gene carried on Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana C629 isolate from China.

The bla NDM-1 gene in Salmonella species is mostly reported in clinical cases, but is rarely isolated from red and white meat in China.A Salmonella Indiana (S. Indiana) isolate was cultured from a chicken carcass procured from a slaughterhouse in China. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against a panel of agents. Whole-genome sequencing of the isolate was carried out and data was analyzed.A large plasmid, denoted as plasmid pC629 (210,106 bp), containing a composite cassette, consisting of IS26-bla NDM-1-ble MBL -?trpF-tat-cutA-ISCR1-sul1-qacE?1-aadA2-dfrA12-intI1-IS26 was identified. The latter locus was physically linked with bla OXA-1, bla CTX-M-65, bla TEM-1-encoding genes. A mercury resistance operon merACDEPTR was also identified; it was flanked on the proximal side, among IS26 element and the distally located on the bla NDM-1 gene. Plasmid pC629 also contained 21 other antimicrobial resistance-encoding genes, such as aac(6′)-Ib-cr, aac(3)-VI, aadA5, aph(4)-Ia, arr-3, blmS, brp, catB3, dfrA17, floR, fosA, mph(A), mphR, mrx, nimC/nimA, oqxA, oqxB, oqxR, rmtB, sul1, sul2. Two virulence genes were also identified on plasmid pC629.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bla NDM-1 gene being identified from a plasmid in a S. Indiana isolate cultured from chicken carcass in China.


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