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April 1, 2019

Genome sequence analysis of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from mice caught on poultry farms in the mid 1990s.

A total of 91 draft genome sequences were used to analyze isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis obtained from feral mice caught on poultry farms in Pennsylvania. One objective was to find mutations disrupting open reading frames (ORFs) and another was to determine if ORF-disruptive mutations were present in isolates obtained from other sources. A total of 83 mice were obtained between 1995-1998. Isolates separated into two genomic clades and 12 subgroups due to 742 mutations. Nineteen ORF-disruptive mutations were found, and in addition, bigA had exceptional heterogeneity requiring additional evaluation. The TRAMS algorithm detected only 6 ORF disruptions. The…

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April 1, 2019

Circulation of Plasmids Harboring Resistance Genes to Quinolones and/or Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Multiple Salmonella enterica Serotypes from Swine in the United States.

Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) poses a major public health risk worldwide that is amplified by the existence of antimicrobial-resistant strains, especially those resistant to quinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). Little is known on the dissemination of plasmids harboring the acquired genetic determinants that confer resistance to these antimicrobials across NTS serotypes from livestock in the United States. NTS isolates (n?=?183) from U.S. swine clinical cases retrieved during 2014 to 2016 were selected for sequencing based on their phenotypic resistance to enrofloxacin (quinolone) or ceftiofur (3rd-generation cephalosporin). De novo assemblies were used to identify chromosomal mutations and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes…

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December 1, 2018

Construction of stable fluorescent laboratory control strains for several food safety relevant Enterobacteriaceae.

Using naturally-occurring bacterial strains as positive controls in testing protocols is typically feared due to the risk of cross-contaminating samples. We have developed a collection of strains which express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) at high-level, permitting rapid screening of the following species on selective or non-selective plates: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Gaminera, S. Mbandaka, S. Tennesse, S. Minnesota, S. Senftenberg and S. Typhimurium. These new strains fluoresce when irradiated with UV light and maintain this phenotype in absence of antibiotic selection. Recombinants were phenotypically equivalent to the parent strain, except for S. Tennessee…

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November 1, 2018

An IncX1 plasmid isolated from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Pullorum carrying blaTEM-1B, sul2, arsenic resistant operons.

We have identified an IncX1 plasmid named pQJDSal1 from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum). The plasmid is 67,685?bp in size and has 72 putative genes. pQJDSal1 harbors a conserved IncX1-type backbone with predicted regions for conjugation, replication and partitioning, as well as a toxin/antitoxin plasmid addiction system. Two regions (A and B) that have not been previously reported in IncX1 plasmids are inserted into the backbone. Region A (10.7?kb), inserted between parA and taxD, consists of a new Tn6168-like transposon containing an arsenic resistant operon arsB2CHR and sulfonamide resistance gene sul2. Region B contains another arsenic resistant…

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September 27, 2018

Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Derby, associated with the pork sector in France.

In the European Union, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Derby is the most abundant serotype isolated from pork. Recent studies have shown that this serotype is polyphyletic. However, one main genomic lineage, characterized by sequence type 40 (ST40), the presence of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 23, and showing resistance to streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracycline (STR-SSS- TET), is pork associated. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of a strain from this lineage isolated in France.

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September 21, 2018

DNA sequences and predicted protein structures of prot6E and sefA genes for Salmonella ser. Enteritidis detection

Genes prot6E and sefA are used as targets for detection of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella ser. Enteritidis). We investigated variations in these genes across 64 different Salmonella ser. Enteritidis strains isolated from egg and chicken samples, then used Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) data to model the structures of their protein products. Isolates were sequenced using Illumina technologies. Based on the resulting phylogenetic tree, our isolates clustered in 2 distinct clades. All isolates carried prot6E and sefA. Comparative genomic analyses indicated two non-synonymous mutations (Glycine ? Serine and Valine ? Isoleucine) of prot6E in 11 isolates (9 egg…

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August 1, 2018

Identification and characterization of conjugative plasmids that encode ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella.

This study aimed to characterize novel conjugative plasmids that encode transferrable ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella In this study, 157 non-duplicated Salmonella isolates were recovered from food products, 55 out of which were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin. Interestingly, 37 out of the 55 (67%) CipRSalmonella isolates did not harbor any mutations in the Quinolone resistance determine regions (QRDR). Interestingly, six Salmonella isolates were shown to carry two novel types of conjugative plasmids that could transfer ciprofloxacin resistance phenotype to E. coli J53 (AziR). The first type belonged to the ~110kb IncFIB type conjugative plasmid carrying qnrB-bearing and aac(6')-Ib-cr-bearing mobile…

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June 4, 2018

Characterization of a novel multidrug resistance plasmid pSGB23 isolated from Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul.

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul (S. Saintpaul) is an important gut pathogen which causes salmonellosis worldwide. Although intestinal salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, it can be life-threatening in children, the elderlies and immunocompromised patients. Appropriate antibiotic treatment is therefore required for these patients. However, the efficacy of many antibiotics on S. enterica infections has been greatly compromised due to spreading of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids, which poses serious threats on public health and needs to be closely monitored. In this study, we sequenced and fully characterized an S. enterica MDR plasmid pSGB23 isolated from chicken.Complete genome sequence analysis revealed that S.…

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June 1, 2018

Sequence analysis of IncA/C and IncI1 plasmids isolated from multidrug-resistant Salmonella Newport using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing.

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmids play an important role in disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes. To elucidate the antimicrobial resistance gene compositions in A/C incompatibility complex (IncA/C) plasmids carried by animal-derived MDR Salmonella Newport, and to investigate the spread mechanism of IncA/C plasmids, this study characterizes the complete nucleotide sequences of IncA/C plasmids by comparative analysis. Complete nucleotide sequencing of plasmids and chromosomes of six MDR Salmonella Newport strains was performed using PacBio RSII. Open reading frames were assigned using prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline (PGAP). To understand genomic diversity and evolutionary relationships among Salmonella Newport IncA/C plasmids, we included three complete IncA/C plasmid…

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June 1, 2018

Comparative analysis of core genome MLST and SNP typing within a European Salmonella serovar Enteritidis outbreak.

Multi-country outbreaks of foodborne bacterial disease present challenges in their detection, tracking, and notification. As food is increasingly distributed across borders, such outbreaks are becoming more common. This increases the need for high-resolution, accessible, and replicable isolate typing schemes. Here we evaluate a core genome multilocus typing (cgMLST) scheme for the high-resolution reproducible typing of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) isolates, by its application to a large European outbreak of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This outbreak had been extensively characterised using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based approaches. The cgMLST analysis was congruent with the original SNP-based analysis, the epidemiological data, and whole…

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May 1, 2018

Evaluation of WGS based approaches for investigating a food-borne outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Derby in Germany.

In Germany salmonellosis still represents the 2nd most common bacterial foodborne disease. The majority of infections are caused by Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis followed by a variety of other broad host-range serovars. Salmonella Derby is one of the five top-ranked serovars isolated from humans and it represents one of the most prevalent serovars in pigs, thus bearing the potential risk for transmission to humans upon consumption of pig meat and products thereof. From November 2013 to January 2014 S. Derby caused a large outbreak that affected 145 primarily elderly people. Epidemiological investigations identified raw pork sausage as the…

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May 1, 2018

Genetic relationships among multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains from humans and animals.

We identified 20 to 22 resistance genes, carried in four incompatibility groups of plasmids, in each of five genetically closely related Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains recovered from humans, pigs, and chickens. The genes conferred resistance to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, fluoroquinolones, extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cefoxitin, and azithromycin. This study demonstrates the transmission of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains among humans and food animals and may be the first identification of mphA in azithromycin-resistant Salmonella strains in Taiwan. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

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April 28, 2018

Complete genomic analysis of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium isolate cultured from ready-to-eat pork in China carrying one large plasmid containing mcr-1.

One mcr-1-carrying ST34-type Salmonella Typhimurium WW012 was cultured from 3,200 ready-to-eat (RTE) pork samples in 2014 in China. Broth dilution method was applied to obtain the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhimurium WW012. Broth matting assays were carried out to detect transferability of this phenotype and whole-genome sequencing was performed to analyze its genomic characteristic. Thirty out of 3,200 RTE samples were positive for Salmonella and the three most frequent serotypes were identified as S. Derby (n = 8), S. Typhimurium (n = 6), and S. Enteritidis (n = 6). One S. Typhimurium isolate (S. Typhimurium WW012) cultured from RTE prepared…

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April 1, 2018

Complete genome sequence of a VIM-1- producing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolate derived from minced pork meat.

Carbapenems are considered last-resort antibiotics used to treat human infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. In 2011, VIM-1 carbapenemase-producing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains were isolated from livestock for the first time in Germany. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the first German blaVIM-1-harboring Salmonella Infantis isolate (15-SA01028) originating from food. Copyright © 2018 Borowiak et al.

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March 1, 2018

Complete genome sequence of a ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky sequence type 198 strain, PU131, isolated from a human patient in Washington State.

Strains of the ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cipr) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky sequence type 198 (ST198) have rapidly and extensively disseminated globally to become a major food safety and public health concern. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a CiprS. Kentucky ST198 strain, PU131, isolated from a human patient in Washington State (USA).

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