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May 1, 2018

Evaluation of WGS based approaches for investigating a food-borne outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Derby in Germany.

In Germany salmonellosis still represents the 2nd most common bacterial foodborne disease. The majority of infections are caused by Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis followed by a variety of other broad host-range serovars. Salmonella Derby is one of the five top-ranked serovars isolated from humans and it represents one of the most prevalent serovars in pigs, thus bearing the potential risk for transmission to humans upon consumption of pig meat and products thereof. From November 2013 to January 2014 S. Derby caused a large outbreak that affected 145 primarily elderly people. Epidemiological investigations identified raw pork sausage as the…

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November 16, 2017

Complete genomic sequences of two Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serogroup C2 (O:6,8) strains from Central California.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strains RM11060, serotype 6,8:d:-, and RM11065, serotype 6,8:-:e,n,z15, were isolated from environmental samples collected in central California in 2009. We report the complete genome sequences of these two strains. These genomic sequences are distinct and will provide additional data to our understanding of S. enterica genomics.

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October 31, 2017

Public health surveillance in the UK revolutionises our understanding of the invasive Salmonella Typhimurium epidemic in Africa.

The ST313 sequence type of Salmonella Typhimurium causes invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis and was thought to be confined to sub-Saharan Africa. Two distinct phylogenetic lineages of African ST313 have been identified.We analysed the whole genome sequences of S. Typhimurium isolates from UK patients that were generated following the introduction of routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of Salmonella enterica by Public Health England in 2014.We found that 2.7% (84/3147) of S. Typhimurium from patients in England and Wales were ST313 and were associated with gastrointestinal infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed novel diversity of ST313 that distinguished UK-linked gastrointestinal isolates from African-associated extra-intestinal isolates. The…

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October 13, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Minnesota strain

Mango has been implicated as food vehicle in several Salmonella-causing foodborne outbreaks. Here, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Minnesota was isolated from fresh mango fruit imported from Mexico in 2014. The complete genome sequence of S. Minnesota CFSAN017963 was sequenced using single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing. Distinct prophage regions, Salmonella pathogenicity islands, and fimbrial gene clusters were observed in comparative genomic analysis on S. Minnesota CFSAN017963 with other phylogenetically closely related Salmonella serovars. Core genome multilocus sequencing typing analysis of all the S. Minnesota isolates in the Genbank and Enterobase also revealed a high genomic diversity among the genomes analyzed.

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October 1, 2017

IS26-mediated formation of a virulence and resistance plasmid in Salmonella Enteritidis.

To characterize a novel virulence-resistance plasmid pSE380T carried by a Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis clinical strain SE380.The plasmid pSE380T was conjugated to Escherichia coli strain J53 and sequenced by PacBio RSII, followed by subsequent annotation and genetic analysis.Sequence analysis of this plasmid revealed that the entire Salmonella Enteritidis-specific virulence plasmid, pSEN, had been incorporated into an IncHI2 MDR plasmid, which comprises the cephalosporin and fosfomycin resistance determinants blaCTX-M-14 and fosA3. Based on BLAST analysis and scrutiny of insertion footprints, the insertion event was found to involve a replicative transposition process mediated by IS26, an IS element frequently detected in various…

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October 1, 2017

Complete genetic analysis of a Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolate accompanying four plasmids carrying mcr-1, ESBL and other resistance genes in China

One mcr-1-carrying Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana strain D90, was identified from 1320 Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry slaughterhouse in 2012 in China. The objective of this study was to verify the transferability of the mcr-1 gene and also completely characterize the sequence of the strain at the whole-genome level. Broth matting assays were carried out to detect the transferability and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of S. enterica serovar Indiana D90 was performed using the PacBio RS II system. Open reading frames were assigned using Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) and analysed by BLASTn and BLASTp. Salmonella Pathogenisity Islands (SPIs) were…

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September 14, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B sequence type 28 harboring mcr-1.

In 2015, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance was reported to be caused by a mobilized phosphoethanolamine transferase gene (mcr-1) in Enterobacteriaceae Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the earliest d-tartrate-fermenting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B isolate harboring mcr-1 from the collection of the German National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella. Copyright © 2017 Borowiak et al.

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September 8, 2017

Whole-genome sequencing identification of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain carrying blaNDM-5 from Guangdong, China.

A carbapenem-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (sequence type 34 [ST34]) strain was isolated from a fecal specimen from a child with acute diarrhea. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the 84.5-kb IncFII plasmid pST41-NDM carrying the NDM-5 carbapenemase gene possesses a structure identical to that of the IncFII-type plasmid backbone. However, the blaNDM-5 flanking sequence found in this plasmid is identical to the blaNDM-5-positive IncX3 plasmids carried by 10 strains of Enterobacteriaceae identified in the same hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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August 17, 2017

Genome sequence of an Australian monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium isolate (TW-Stm6) carrying a large plasmid with multiple antimicrobial resistance genes.

We report the genome sequence of a monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strain (TW-Stm6) isolated in Australia that is similar to epidemic multidrug-resistant strains from Europe and elsewhere. This strain carries additional antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes on a large (275-kb) IncHI2 plasmid. Copyright © 2017 Dyall-Smith et al.

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August 1, 2017

Comparative sequence analysis of multidrug-resistant IncA/C plasmids from Salmonella enterica

Determinants of multidrug resistance (MDR) are often encoded on mobile elements, such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which have the potential to transfer among foodborne pathogens, as well as to other virulent pathogens, increasing the threats these traits pose to human and veterinary health. Our understanding of MDR among Salmonella has been limited by the lack of closed plasmid genomes for comparisons across resistance phenotypes, due to difficulties in effectively separating the DNA of these high-molecular weight, low-copy-number plasmids from chromosomal DNA. To resolve this problem, we demonstrate an efficient protocol for isolating, sequencing and closing IncA/C plasmids from Salmonella…

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July 1, 2017

Advantages of genome sequencing by long-read sequencer using SMRT technology in medical area.

PacBio RS II is the first commercialized third-generation DNA sequencer able to sequence a single molecule DNA in real-time without amplification. PacBio RS II's sequencing technology is novel and unique, enabling the direct observation of DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase. PacBio RS II confers four major advantages compared to other sequencing technologies: long read lengths, high consensus accuracy, a low degree of bias, and simultaneous capability of epigenetic characterization. These advantages surmount the obstacle of sequencing genomic regions such as high/low G+C, tandem repeat, and interspersed repeat regions. Moreover, PacBio RS II is ideal for whole genome sequencing, targeted sequencing,…

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July 1, 2017

Genomic characterization of a large plasmid containing a bla NDM-1 gene carried on Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana C629 isolate from China.

The bla NDM-1 gene in Salmonella species is mostly reported in clinical cases, but is rarely isolated from red and white meat in China.A Salmonella Indiana (S. Indiana) isolate was cultured from a chicken carcass procured from a slaughterhouse in China. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against a panel of agents. Whole-genome sequencing of the isolate was carried out and data was analyzed.A large plasmid, denoted as plasmid pC629 (210,106 bp), containing a composite cassette, consisting of IS26-bla NDM-1-ble MBL -?trpF-tat-cutA-ISCR1-sul1-qacE?1-aadA2-dfrA12-intI1-IS26 was identified. The latter locus was physically linked with bla OXA-1, bla CTX-M-65, bla TEM-1-encoding genes. A mercury resistance operon merACDEPTR…

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June 29, 2017

Complete genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis strains isolated from egg products in the United States.

Egg-associated salmonellosis is an important public health problem in many countries. Here, we report the genome sequences, including plasmids, of two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from egg products in 2012 and 2013 in the United States. This will provide more information and insight into the research about egg-associated salmonellosis. Copyright © 2017 Hu et al.

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June 1, 2017

Comparative analysis of extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase CTX-M-65-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolates from humans, food animals, and retail chickens in the United States.

We sequenced the genomes of ten Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis containing blaCTX-M-65 isolated from chicken, cattle, and human sources collected between 2012 and 2015 in the United States through routine NARMS surveillance and product sampling programs. We also completely assembled the plasmids from four of the isolates. All isolates had a D87Y mutation in the gyrA gene and harbored between 7 and 10 resistance genes (aph (4)-Ia, aac (3)-IVa, aph(3' )-Ic, blaCTX-M-65, fosA3, floR, dfrA14, sul1, tetA, aadA1) located in two distinct sites of a megaplasmid (~316-323kb) similar to that described in a blaCTX-M-65-positive S. Infantis isolated from a patient…

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June 1, 2017

Complete genome sequences of three Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Saintpaul isolates associated with a 2013 multistate outbreak in the United States.

In 2013, a multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Saintpaul from cucumber caused 84 cases of salmonellosis in the United States. In this announcement, we report the complete genome sequences of three clinical Salmonella Saintpaul isolates associated with the 2013 outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Yao et al.

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