July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Phaeobacter daeponensis type strain (DSM 23529(T)), a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from marine sediment, and emendation of Phaeobacter daeponensis.

TF-218(T) is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter daeponensis Yoon et al. 2007, a facultatively anaerobic Phaeobacter species isolated from tidal flats. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium together with previously unreported aspects of its phenotype. We analyzed the genome for genes involved in secondary metabolite production and its anaerobic lifestyle, which have also been described for its closest relative Phaeobacter caeruleus. The 4,642,596 bp long genome of strain TF-218(T) contains 4,310 protein-coding genes and 78 RNA genes including four rRNA operons and consists of five replicons: one chromosome and four extrachromosomal elements with sizes of 276 kb, 174 kb, 117 kb and 90 kb. Genome analysis showed that TF-218(T) possesses all of the genes for indigoidine biosynthesis, and on specific media the strain showed a blue pigmentation. We also found genes for dissimilatory nitrate reduction, gene-transfer agents, NRPS/ PKS genes and signaling systems homologous to the LuxR/I system.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the phage-gene rich marine Phaeobacter arcticus type strain DSM 23566(T.).

Phaeobacter arcticus Zhang et al. 2008 belongs to the marine Roseobacter clade whose members are phylogenetically and physiologically diverse. In contrast to the type species of this genus, Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, which is well characterized, relatively little is known about the characteristics of P. arcticus. Here, we describe the features of this organism including the annotated high-quality draft genome sequence and highlight some particular traits. The 5,049,232 bp long genome with its 4,828 protein-coding and 81 RNA genes consists of one chromosome and five extrachromosomal elements. Prophage sequences identified via PHAST constitute nearly 5% of the bacterial chromosome and included a potential Mu-like phage as well as a gene-transfer agent (GTA). In addition, the genome of strain DSM 23566(T) encodes all of the genes necessary for assimilatory nitrate reduction. Phylogenetic analysis and intergenomic distances indicate that the classification of the species might need to be reconsidered.


July 7, 2019  |  

Adaptation of surface-associated bacteria to the open ocean: A genomically distinct subpopulation of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis Ccolonizes Pacific mesozooplankton.

The marine Roseobacter group encompasses numerous species which occupy a large variety of ecological niches. However, members of the genus Phaeobacter are specifically adapted to a surface-associated lifestyle and have so far been found nearly exclusively in disjunct, man-made environments including shellfish and fish aquacultures, as well as harbors. Therefore, the possible natural habitats, dispersal and evolution of Phaeobacter spp. have largely remained obscure. Applying a high-throughput cultivation strategy along a longitudinal Pacific transect, the present study revealed for the first time a widespread natural occurrence of Phaeobacter in the marine pelagial. These bacteria were found to be specifically associated to mesoplankton where they constitute a small but detectable proportion of the bacterial community. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 18 isolated strains were identical to that of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis DSM26640(T) but sequences of internal transcribed spacer and selected genomes revealed that the strains form a distinct clade within P. gallaeciensis. The genomes of the Pacific and the aquaculture strains were highly conserved and had a fraction of the core genome of 89.6%, 80 synteny breakpoints, and differed 2.2% in their nucleotide sequences. Diversification likely occurred through neutral mutations. However, the Pacific strains exclusively contained two active Type I restriction modification systems which is commensurate with a reduced acquisition of mobile elements in the Pacific clade. The Pacific clade of P. gallaeciensis also acquired a second, homolog phosphonate transport system compared to all other P. gallaeciensis. Our data indicate that a previously unknown, distinct clade of P. gallaeciensis acquired a limited number of clade-specific genes that were relevant for its association with mesozooplankton and for colonization of the marine pelagial. The divergence of the Pacific clade most likely was driven by the adaptation to this novel ecological niche rather than by geographic isolation.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Shimia str. SK013, a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from marine sediment.

Shimia strain SK013 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, rod shaped alphaproteobacterium affiliated with the Roseobacter group within the family Rhodobacteraceae. The strain was isolated from surface sediment (0-1 cm) of the Skagerrak at 114 m below sea level. The 4,049,808 bp genome of Shimia str. SK013 comprises 3,981 protein-coding genes and 47 RNA genes. It contains one chromosome and no extrachromosomal elements. The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase (mttB) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. This indicates that Shimia str. SK013 is able to switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and thus is capable of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur cycling at the seafloor. Among the ability to convert other sulfur compounds it has the genetic capacity to produce climatically active dimethyl sulfide. Growth on glutamate as a sole carbon source results in formation of cell-connecting filaments, a putative phenotypic adaptation of the surface-associated strain to the environmental conditions at the seafloor. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a flagellum (fla1) and a type IV pilus biogenesis, which is speculated to be a prerequisite for biofilm formation. This is also related to genes responsible for signalling such as N-acyl homoserine lactones, as well as quip-genes responsible for quorum quenching and antibiotic biosynthesis. Pairwise similarities of 16S rRNA genes (98.56 % sequence similarity to the next relative S. haliotis) and the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (21.20 % sequence similarity to S. haliotis) indicated Shimia str. SK013 to be considered as a new species. The genome analysis of Shimia str. SK013 offered first insights into specific physiological and phenotypic adaptation mechanisms of Roseobacter-affiliated bacteria to the benthic environment.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic, physiologic, and proteomic insights into metabolic versatility in Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from deep-sea water.

Roseobacter clade bacteria are ubiquitous in marine environments and now thought to be significant contributors to carbon and sulfur cycling. However, only a few strains of roseobacters have been isolated from the deep-sea water column and have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we present the complete genomes of phylogentically closed related Thiobacimonas profunda JLT2016 and Pelagibaca abyssi JLT2014 isolated from deep-sea water of the Southeastern Pacific. The genome sequences showed that the two deep-sea roseobacters carry genes for versatile metabolisms with functional capabilities such as ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-mediated carbon fixation and inorganic sulfur oxidation. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that T. profunda JLT2016 was capable of autotrophy, heterotrophy, and mixotrophy accompanied by the production of exopolysaccharide. Heterotrophic carbon fixation via anaplerotic reactions contributed minimally to bacterial biomass. Comparative proteomics experiments showed a significantly up-regulated carbon fixation and inorganic sulfur oxidation associated proteins under chemolithotrophic conditions compared to heterotrophic conditions. Collectively, rosebacters show a high metabolic flexibility, suggesting a considerable capacity for adaptation to the marine environment.


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