At what point during translation do proteins fold? It is well established that proteins can fold cotranslationally outside the ribosome exit tunnel, whereas studies of folding inside the exit tunnel have so far detected only the formation of helical secondary structure and collapsed or partially structured folding intermediates. Here, using a combination of cotranslational nascent chain force measurements, inter-subunit fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies on single translating ribosomes, molecular dynamics simulations, and cryoelectron microscopy, we show that a small zinc-finger domain protein can fold deep inside the vestibule of the ribosome exit tunnel. Thus, for small protein domains, the ribosome itself can provide the kind of sheltered folding environment that chaperones provide for larger proteins. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coupling of mRNA structure rearrangement to ribosome movement during bypassing of non-coding regions.
Nearly half of the ribosomes translating a particular bacteriophage T4 mRNA bypass a region of 50 nt, resuming translation 3′ of this gap. How this large-scale, specific hop occurs and what determines whether a ribosome bypasses remain unclear. We apply single-molecule fluorescence with zero-mode waveguides to track individual Escherichia coli ribosomes during translation of T4’s gene 60 mRNA. Ribosomes that bypass are characterized by a 10- to 20-fold longer pause in a non-canonical rotated state at the take-off codon. During the pause, mRNA secondary structure rearrangements are coupled to ribosome forward movement, facilitated by nascent peptide interactions that disengage the ribosome anticodon-codon interactions for slippage. Close to the landing site, the ribosome then scans mRNA in search of optimal base-pairing interactions. Our results provide a mechanistic and conformational framework for bypassing, highlighting a non-canonical ribosomal state to allow for mRNA structure refolding to drive large-scale ribosome movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spontaneous changes in the reading frame of translation are rare (frequency of 10(-3) to 10(-4) per codon), but can be induced by specific features in the messenger RNA (mRNA). In the presence of mRNA secondary structures, a heptanucleotide ‘slippery sequence’ usually defined by the motif X XXY YYZ, and (in some prokaryotic cases) mRNA sequences that base pair with the 3′ end of the 16S ribosomal rRNA (internal Shine-Dalgarno sequences), there is an increased probability that a specific programmed change of frame occurs, wherein the ribosome shifts one nucleotide backwards into an overlapping reading frame (-1 frame) and continues by translating a new sequence of amino acids. Despite extensive biochemical and genetic studies, there is no clear mechanistic description for frameshifting. Here we apply single-molecule fluorescence to track the compositional and conformational dynamics of individual ribosomes at each codon during translation of a frameshift-inducing mRNA from the dnaX gene in Escherichia coli. Ribosomes that frameshift into the -1 frame are characterized by a tenfold longer pause in elongation compared to non-frameshifted ribosomes, which translate through unperturbed. During the pause, interactions of the ribosome with the mRNA stimulatory elements uncouple EF-G catalysed translocation from normal ribosomal subunit reverse-rotation, leaving the ribosome in a non-canonical intersubunit rotated state with an exposed codon in the aminoacyl-tRNA site (A site). tRNA(Lys) sampling and accommodation to the empty A site and EF-G action either leads to the slippage of the tRNAs into the -1 frame or maintains the ribosome into the 0 frame. Our results provide a general mechanistic and conformational framework for -1 frameshifting, highlighting multiple kinetic branchpoints during elongation.
SecM is an E. coli secretion monitor capable of stalling translation on the prokaryotic ribosome without cofactors. Biochemical and structural studies have demonstrated that the SecM nascent chain interacts with the 50S subunit exit tunnel to inhibit peptide bond formation. However, the timescales and pathways of stalling on an mRNA remain undefined. To provide a dynamic mechanism for stalling, we directly tracked the dynamics of elongation on ribosomes translating the SecM stall sequence (FSTPVWISQAQGIRAGP) using single-molecule fluorescence techniques. Within 1 min, three peptide-ribosome interactions work cooperatively over the last five codons of the SecM sequence, leading to severely impaired elongation rates beginning from the terminal proline and lasting four codons. Our results suggest that stalling is tightly linked to the dynamics of elongation and underscore the roles that the exit tunnel and nascent chain play in controlling fundamental steps in translation. opyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The traditional view of macrolide antibiotics as plugs inside the ribosomal nascent peptide exit tunnel (NPET) has lately been challenged in favor of a more complex, heterogeneous mechanism, where drug-peptide interactions determine the fate of a translating ribosome. To investigate these highly dynamic processes, we applied single-molecule tracking of elongating ribosomes during inhibition of elongation by erythromycin of several nascent chains, including ErmCL and H-NS, which were shown to be, respectively, sensitive and resistant to erythromycin. Peptide sequence-specific changes were observed in translation elongation dynamics in the presence of a macrolide-obstructed NPET. Elongation rates were not severely inhibited in general by the presence of the drug; instead, stalls or pauses were observed as abrupt events. The dynamic pathways of nascent-chain-dependent elongation pausing in the presence of macrolides determine the fate of the translating ribosome stalling or readthrough. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inferring antibiotic mechanisms on translation through static structures has been challenging, as biological systems are highly dynamic. Dynamic single-molecule methods are also limited to few simultaneously measurable parameters. We have circumvented these limitations with a multifaceted approach to investigate three structurally distinct aminoglycosides that bind to the aminoacyl-transfer RNA site (A site) in the prokaryotic 30S ribosomal subunit: apramycin, paromomycin, and gentamicin. Using several single-molecule fluorescence measurements combined with structural and biochemical techniques, we observed distinct changes to translational dynamics for each aminoglycoside. While all three drugs effectively inhibit translation elongation, their actions are structurally and mechanistically distinct. Apramycin does not displace A1492 and A1493 at the decoding center, as demonstrated by a solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure, causing only limited miscoding; instead, it primarily blocks translocation. Paromomycin and gentamicin, which displace A1492 and A1493, cause significant miscoding, block intersubunit rotation, and inhibit translocation. Our results show the power of combined dynamics, structural, and biochemical approaches to elucidate the complex mechanisms underlying translation and its inhibition. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
During translation elongation, the ribosome compositional factors elongation factor G (EF-G; encoded by fusA) and tRNA alternately bind to the ribosome to direct protein synthesis and regulate the conformation of the ribosome. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence with zero-mode waveguides to directly correlate ribosome conformation and composition during multiple rounds of elongation at high factor concentrations in Escherichia coli. Our results show that EF-G bound to GTP (EF-G-GTP) continuously samples both rotational states of the ribosome, binding with higher affinity to the rotated state. Upon successful accommodation into the rotated ribosome, the EF-G-ribosome complex evolves through several rate-limiting conformational changes and the hydrolysis of GTP, which results in a transition back to the nonrotated state and in turn drives translocation and facilitates release of both EF-G-GDP and E-site tRNA. These experiments highlight the power of tracking single-molecule conformation and composition simultaneously in real time.
During termination of translation, the nascent peptide is first released from the ribosome, which must be subsequently disassembled into subunits in a process known as ribosome recycling. In bacteria, termination and recycling are mediated by the translation factors RF, RRF, EF-G, and IF3, but their precise roles have remained unclear. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence to track the conformation and composition of the ribosome in real time during termination and recycling. Our results show that peptide release by RF induces a rotated ribosomal conformation. RRF binds to this rotated intermediate to form the substrate for EF-G that, in turn, catalyzes GTP-dependent subunit disassembly. After the 50S subunit departs, IF3 releases the deacylated tRNA from the 30S subunit, thus preventing reassembly of the 70S ribosome. Our findings reveal the post-termination rotated state as the crucial intermediate in the transition from termination to recycling. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In order to coordinate the complex biochemical and structural feat of converting triple-nucleotide codons into their corresponding amino acids, the ribosome must physically manipulate numerous macromolecules including the mRNA, tRNAs, and numerous translation factors. The ribosome choreographs binding, dissociation, physical movements, and structural rearrangements so that they synergistically harness the energy from biochemical processes, including numerous GTP hydrolysis steps and peptide bond formation. Due to the dynamic and complex nature of translation, the large cast of ligands involved, and the large number of possible configurations, tracking the global time evolution or dynamics of the ribosome complex in translation has proven to be challenging for bulk methods. Conventional single-molecule fluorescence experiments on the other hand require low concentrations of fluorescent ligands to reduce background noise. The significantly reduced bimolecular association rates under those conditions limit the number of steps that can be observed within the time window available to a fluorophore. The advent of zero-mode waveguide (ZMW) technology has allowed the study of translation at near-physiological concentrations of labeled ligands, moving single-molecule fluorescence microscopy beyond focused model systems into studying the global dynamics of translation in realistic setups. This chapter reviews the recent works using the ZMW technology to dissect the mechanism of translation initiation and elongation in prokaryotes, including complex processes such as translational stalling and frameshifting. Given the success of the technology, similarly complex biological processes could be studied in near-physiological conditions with the controllability of conventional in vitro experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amino acid sequence repertoire of the bacterial proteome and the occurrence of untranslatable sequences.
Bioinformatic analysis of Escherichia coli proteomes revealed that all possible amino acid triplet sequences occur at their expected frequencies, with four exceptions. Two of the four underrepresented sequences (URSs) were shown to interfere with translation in vivo and in vitro. Enlarging the URS by a single amino acid resulted in increased translational inhibition. Single-molecule methods revealed stalling of translation at the entrance of the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome, adjacent to ribosomal nucleotides A2062 and U2585. Interaction with these same ribosomal residues is involved in regulation of translation by longer, naturally occurring protein sequences. The E. coli exit tunnel has evidently evolved to minimize interaction with the exit tunnel and maximize the sequence diversity of the proteome, although allowing some interactions for regulatory purposes. Bioinformatic analysis of the human proteome revealed no underrepresented triplet sequences, possibly reflecting an absence of regulation by interaction with the exit tunnel.
A portrait of ribosomal DNA contacts with Hi-C reveals 5S and 45S rDNA anchoring points in the folded human genome.
Ribosomal rRNAs account for >60% of all RNAs in eukaryotic cells and are encoded in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays. The rRNAs are produced from two sets of loci: the 5S rDNA array resides exclusively on human chromosome 1, while the 45S rDNA array resides on the short arm of five human acrocentric chromosomes. The 45S rDNA gives origin to the nucleolus, the nuclear organelle that is the site of ribosome biogenesis. Intriguingly, 5S and 45S rDNA arrays exhibit correlated copy number variation in lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs). Here we examined the genomic architecture and repeat content of the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays in multiple human genome assemblies (including PacBio MHAP assembly) and ascertained contacts between the rDNA arrays and the rest of the genome using Hi-C datasets from two human cell lines (erythroleukemia K562 and lymphoblastoid cells). Our analyses revealed that 5S and 45S arrays each have thousands of contacts in the folded genome, with rDNA-associated regions and genes dispersed across all chromosomes. The rDNA contact map displayed conserved and disparate features between two cell lines, and pointed to specific chromosomes, genomic regions, and genes with evidence of spatial proximity to the rDNA arrays; the data also showed a lack of direct physical interaction between the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays. Finally, the analysis identified an intriguing organization in the 5S array with Alu and 5S elements adjacent to one another and organized in opposite orientation along the array. We conclude that portraits of genome folding centered on the ribosomal DNA array could help understand the emergence of concerted variation, the control of 5S and 45S expression, as well as provide insights into an organelle that contributes to the spatial localization of human chromosomes during interphase.© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.