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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A viral immunity chromosome in the marine picoeukaryote, Ostreococcus tauri.

Micro-algae of the genus Ostreococcus and related species of the order Mamiellales are globally distributed in the photic zone of world’s oceans where they contribute to fixation of atmospheric carbon and production of oxygen, besides providing a primary source of nutrition in the food web. Their tiny size, simple cells, ease of culture, compact genomes and susceptibility to the most abundant large DNA viruses in the sea render them attractive as models for integrative marine biology. In culture, spontaneous resistance to viruses occurs frequently. Here, we show that virus-producing resistant cell lines arise in many independent cell lines during lytic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence and analysis of the Japanese morning glory Ipomoea nil.

Ipomoea is the largest genus in the family Convolvulaceae. Ipomoea nil (Japanese morning glory) has been utilized as a model plant to study the genetic basis of floricultural traits, with over 1,500 mutant lines. In the present study, we have utilized second- and third-generation-sequencing platforms, and have reported a draft genome of I. nil with a scaffold N50 of 2.88?Mb (contig N50 of 1.87?Mb), covering 98% of the 750?Mb genome. Scaffolds covering 91.42% of the assembly are anchored to 15 pseudo-chromosomes. The draft genome has enabled the identification and cataloguing of the Tpn1 family transposons, known as the major mutagen…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

BAC-pool sequencing and analysis confirms growth-associated QTLs in the Asian seabass genome.

The Asian seabass is an important marine food fish that has been cultured for several decades in Asia Pacific. However, the lack of a high quality reference genome has hampered efforts to improve its selective breeding. A 3D BAC pool set generated in this study was screened using 22 SSR markers located on linkage group 2 which contains a growth-related QTL region. Seventy-two clones corresponding to 22 FPC contigs were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq technology. We co-assembled the MiSeq-derived scaffolds from each FPC contig with error-corrected PacBio reads, resulting in 187 sequences covering 9.7?Mb. Eleven genes annotated within this region…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas citronellolis P3B5, a candidate for microbial phyllo-remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites

Pseudomonas citronellolis is a Gram negative, motile gammaproteobacterium belonging to the order Pseudomonadales and the family Pseudomonadaceae. We isolated strain P3B5 from the phyllosphere of basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.). Here we describe the physiology of this microorganism, its full genome sequence, and detailed annotation. The 6.95 Mbp genome contains 6071 predicted protein coding sequences and 96 RNA coding sequences. P. citronellolis has been the subject of many studies including the investigation of long-chain aliphatic compounds and terpene degradation. Plant leaves are covered by long-chain aliphates making up a waxy layer that is associated with the leaf cuticle. In addition,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Divergent isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways in Staphylococcus species constitute a drug target for treating infections in companion animals.

Staphylococcus species are a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections in humans and animals, and the antibiotics used to treat these infections are often the same. Methicillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections are becoming more common in human and veterinary medicine. From a “One Health” perspective, this overlap in antibiotic use and resistance raises concerns over the potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis revealed that Staphylococcus species use divergent pathways to synthesize isoprenoids. Species frequently associated with skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals, including S. schleiferi and S. pseudintermedius, use the nonmevalonate pathway.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

ChIP-Seq-annotated Heliconius erato genome highlights patterns of cis-regulatory evolution in Lepidoptera.

Uncovering phylogenetic patterns of cis-regulatory evolution remains a fundamental goal for evolutionary and developmental biology. Here, we characterize the evolution of regulatory loci in butterflies and moths using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) annotation of regulatory elements across three stages of head development. In the process we provide a high-quality, functionally annotated genome assembly for the butterfly, Heliconius erato. Comparing cis-regulatory element conservation across six lepidopteran genomes, we find that regulatory sequences evolve at a pace similar to that of protein-coding regions. We also observe that elements active at multiple developmental stages are markedly more conserved than elements with stage-specific activity.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of a new chlorovirus type with permissive and non-permissive features on phylogenetically related algal strains.

A previous report indicated that prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 replicated in two Chlorella variabilis algal strains, NC64A and Syngen 2-3, that are ex-endosymbionts isolated from the protozoan Paramecium bursaria. Surprisingly, plaque-forming viruses on Syngen 2-3 lawns were often higher than on NC64A lawns from indigenous water samples. These differences led to the discovery of viruses that exclusively replicate in Syngen 2-3 cells, named Only Syngen (OSy) viruses. OSy-NE5, the prototype virus for the proposed new species, had a linear dsDNA genome of 327kb with 44-nucleotide-long, incompletely base-paired, covalently closed hairpin ends. Each hairpin structure was followed by an identical 2612 base-paired…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comprehensive genomic and phenotypic metal resistance profile of Pseudomonas putida strain S13.1.2 isolated from a vineyard soil.

Trace metals are required in many cellular processes in bacteria but also induce toxic effects to cells when present in excess. As such, various forms of adaptive responses towards extracellular trace metal ions are essential for the survival and fitness of bacteria in their environment. A soil Pseudomonas putida, strain S13.1.2 has been isolated from French vineyard soil samples, and shown to confer resistance to copper ions. Further investigation revealed a high capacity to tolerate elevated concentrations of various heavy metals including nickel, cobalt, cadmium, zinc and arsenic. The complete genome analysis was conducted using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Silicon content of individual cells of Synechococcus from the North Atlantic Ocean

The widely distributed marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus is thought to exert an influence on the marine silicon (Si) cycle through its high cellular Si relative to organic content. There are few measurements of Si in natural populations of Synechococcus, however, and the degree to which Synechococcus from various oligotrophic field sites and depths accumulate the element is unknown. We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence to measure Si quotas in individual Synechococcus cells collected during three cruises in the western North Atlantic Ocean in the summer and fall, focusing on cells from the surface mixed layer (SML;

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Contiguous and accurate de novo assembly of metazoan genomes with modest long read coverage.

Genome assemblies that are accurate, complete and contiguous are essential for identifying important structural and functional elements of genomes and for identifying genetic variation. Nevertheless, most recent genome assemblies remain incomplete and fragmented. While long molecule sequencing promises to deliver more complete genome assemblies with fewer gaps, concerns about error rates, low yields, stringent DNA requirements and uncertainty about best practices may discourage many investigators from adopting this technology. Here, in conjunction with the platinum standard Drosophila melanogaster reference genome, we analyze recently published long molecule sequencing data to identify what governs completeness and contiguity of genome assemblies. We also…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genetic characterization of a blaVEB-2-carrying plasmid in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

This study reports the first detection of blaVEB-2 gene in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain isolated from a shrimp sample. The blaVEB-2 was carried on a novel Inc type plasmid, was likely to originate from aquatic organisms upon comparison with other known genetic elements in the GenBank. However, the plasmid contains resistance elements usually harbored by members of Enterobacteriaceae, suggesting that gene transfer events occurred and contributed to the formation of this multidrug resistance-encoding plasmid. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genetic basis of priority effects: insights from nectar yeast.

Priority effects, in which the order of species arrival dictates community assembly, can have a major influence on species diversity, but the genetic basis of priority effects remains unknown. Here, we suggest that nitrogen scavenging genes previously considered responsible for starvation avoidance may drive priority effects by causing rapid resource depletion. Using single-molecule sequencing, we de novo assembled the genome of the nectar-colonizing yeast, Metschnikowia reukaufii, across eight scaffolds and complete mitochondrion, with gap-free coverage over gene spaces. We found a high rate of tandem gene duplication in this genome, enriched for nitrogen metabolism and transport. Both high-capacity amino acid…

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