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April 6, 2016

Comparative genomic analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis serosensitive and seroresistant lineages demonstrate their independent evolution.

The bacterial species Moraxella catarrhalishas been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly…

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April 1, 2016

A highly arginolytic Streptococcus species that potently antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans.…

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March 14, 2016

Complete genome sequence of Turicibacter sp. strain H121, isolated from the feces of a contaminated germ-free mouse.

Turicibacterbacteria are commonly detected in the gastrointestinal tracts and feces of humans and animals, but their phylogeny, ecological role, and pathogenic potential remain unclear. We present here the first complete genome sequence ofTuricibactersp. strain H121, which was isolated from the feces of a mouse line contaminated following germ-free derivation. Copyright © 2016 Auchtung et al.

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March 5, 2016

Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the streptomycin-dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain 18b.

The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to establish a latent infection (LTBI) in humans confounds the treatment of tuberculosis. Consequently, there is a need to discover new therapeutic agents that can kill M. tuberculosis both during active disease and LTBI. The streptomycin-dependent strain of M. tuberculosis, 18b, provides a useful tool for this purpose since upon removal of streptomycin (STR) it enters a non-replicating state that mimics latency both in vitro and in animal models.The 4.41 Mb genome sequence of M. tuberculosis 18b was determined and this revealed the strain to belong to clade 3 of the ancient ancestral lineage of the…

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February 1, 2016

Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Eucommia ulmoides: genome structure and evolution.

Eucommia ulmoides is an important traditional medicinal plant that is used for the production of locative Eucommia rubber. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of E. ulmoides was obtained by total DNA sequencing; this is the first cp genome sequence of the order Garryales. The cp genome of E. ulmoides was 163,341 bp long and included a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (31,300 bp), one large single copy (LSC) region (86,592 bp), and one small single copy (SSC) region (14,149 bp). The genome structure and GC content were similar to those of typical angiosperm cp genomes and contained 115 unique…

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September 1, 2015

Burkholderia pseudomallei sequencing identifies genomic clades with distinct recombination, accessory, and epigenetic profiles.

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is the causative agent of the infectious disease melioidosis. To investigate population diversity, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer in closely related Bp isolates, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 106 clinical, animal, and environmental strains from a restricted Asian locale. Whole-genome phylogenies resolved multiple genomic clades of Bp, largely congruent with multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We discovered widespread recombination in the Bp core genome, involving hundreds of regions associated with multiple haplotypes. Highly recombinant regions exhibited functional enrichments that may contribute to virulence. We observed clade-specific patterns of recombination and accessory gene exchange, and provide evidence that…

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September 1, 2015

Complete genome sequence of Deinococcus swuensis, a bacterium resistant to radiation toxicity

Deinococcus swuensis DY59T is a Grampositive, coccus-shaped bacterium. Most members of the genus Deinococcus are able to grow in the presence of high levels of chronic radiation toxicity and desiccation because they can protect enzymes from reactive oxygen species generated during ionizing radiation. The mechanisms behind the resistance to radiation toxicity and the genomic features of resistance could be useful to exploit Deinococcus swuensis in the biotechnological applications such as detoxification of xenobiotic contaminated with radioactive wastes. Strain DY59T showed resistance to gamma radiation with a D10 value (i.e. the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by 10-fold) in…

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January 1, 2015

Complete annotated genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Zopf) Lehmann and Neumann (ATCC35812) (Kurono).

We report the completely annotated genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Zopf) Lehmann and Neumann (ATCC35812) (Kurono), which is a used for virulence and/or immunization studies. The complete genome sequence of M. tuberculosis Kurono was determined with a length of 4,415,078 bp and a G+C content of 65.60%. The chromosome was shown to contain a total of 4,340 protein-coding genes, 53 tRNA genes, one transfer messenger RNA for all amino acids, and 1 rrn operon. Lineage analysis based on large sequence polymorphisms indicated that M. tuberculosis Kurono belongs to the Euro-American lineage (lineage 4). Phylogenetic analysis using whole genome sequences of…

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September 5, 2014

The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera.

Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393?Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140?My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and…

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August 21, 2014

Whole-genome sequence of Serratia symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3T, a free-living symbiont of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae.

The gammaproteobacterium Serratia symbiotica is one of the major secondary symbionts found in aphids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3(T), previously isolated from the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. The 3.58-Mb genome sequence might provide new insights to understand the evolution of insect-microbe symbiosis. Copyright © 2014 Foray et al.

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August 1, 2014

The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli EC958: a high quality reference sequence for the globally disseminated multidrug resistant E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 clone.

Escherichia coli ST131 is now recognised as a leading contributor to urinary tract and bloodstream infections in both community and clinical settings. Here we present the complete, annotated genome of E. coli EC958, which was isolated from the urine of a patient presenting with a urinary tract infection in the Northwest region of England and represents the most well characterised ST131 strain. Sequencing was carried out using the Pacific Biosciences platform, which provided sufficient depth and read-length to produce a complete genome without the need for other technologies. The discovery of spurious contigs within the assembly that correspond to site-specific…

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August 1, 2014

Population structure of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from midwestern U.S. hospitals.

Genome sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from regional U.S. hospitals was used to characterize strain diversity and the bla(KPC) genetic context. A phylogeny based on core single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) supports a division of sequence type 258 (ST258) into two distinct groups. The primary differences between the groups are in the capsular polysaccharide locus (cps) and their plasmid contents. A strict association between clade and KPC variant was found. The bla(KPC) gene was found on variants of two plasmid backbones. This study indicates that highly similar K. pneumoniae subpopulations coexist within the same hospitals over time. Copyright © 2014, American…

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July 7, 2014

Genome sequence of Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis from group I.1b enriched from Everglades soil reveals novel genomic features of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

The activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) leads to the loss of nitrogen from soil, pollution of water sources and elevated emissions of greenhouse gas. To date, eight AOA genomes are available in the public databases, seven are from the group I.1a of the Thaumarchaeota and only one is from the group I.1b, isolated from hot springs. Many soils are dominated by AOA from the group I.1b, but the genomes of soil representatives of this group have not been sequenced and functionally characterized. The lack of knowledge of metabolic pathways of soil AOA presents a critical gap in understanding their role…

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June 1, 2014

Resistance determinants and mobile genetic elements of an NDM-1-encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are emerging as a serious infectious disease challenge. These strains can accumulate many antibiotic resistance genes though horizontal transfer of genetic elements, those for ß-lactamases being of particular concern. Some ß-lactamases are active on a broad spectrum of ß-lactams including the last-resort carbapenems. The gene for the broad-spectrum and carbapenem-active metallo-ß-lactamase NDM-1 is rapidly spreading. We present the complete genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, the first U.S. isolate found to encode NDM-1, and describe its repertoire of antibiotic-resistance genes and mutations, including genes for eight ß-lactamases and 15 additional antibiotic-resistance enzymes. To elucidate the evolution of this…

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May 1, 2014

Organellar genomes of the four-toothed moss, Tetraphis pellucida.

Mosses are the largest of the three extant clades of gametophyte-dominant land plants and remain poorly studied using comparative genomic methods. Major monophyletic moss lineages are characterised by different types of a spore dehiscence apparatus called the peristome, and the most important unsolved problem in higher-level moss systematics is the branching order of these peristomate clades. Organellar genome sequencing offers the potential to resolve this issue through the provision of both genomic structural characters and a greatly increased quantity of nucleotide substitution characters, as well as to elucidate organellar evolution in mosses. We publish and describe the chloroplast and mitochondrial…

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