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Friday, July 19, 2019

The origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strain.

Although cholera has been present in Latin America since 1991, it had not been epidemic in Haiti for at least 100 years. Recently, however, there has been a severe outbreak of cholera in Haiti.We used third-generation single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing to determine the genome sequences of 2 clinical Vibrio cholerae isolates from the current outbreak in Haiti, 1 strain that caused cholera in Latin America in 1991, and 2 strains isolated in South Asia in 2002 and 2008. Using primary sequence data, we compared the genomes of these 5 strains and a set of previously obtained partial genomic sequences of…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Origins of the E. coli strain causing an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Germany.

A large outbreak of diarrhea and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by an unusual serotype of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (O104:H4) began in Germany in May 2011. As of July 22, a large number of cases of diarrhea caused by Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli have been reported–3167 without the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (16 deaths) and 908 with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (34 deaths)–indicating that this strain is notably more virulent than most of the Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli strains. Preliminary genetic characterization of the outbreak strain suggested that, unlike most of these strains, it should be classified within the enteroaggregative pathotype of E. coli.We used third-generation,…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli EC958: a high quality reference sequence for the globally disseminated multidrug resistant E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 clone.

Escherichia coli ST131 is now recognised as a leading contributor to urinary tract and bloodstream infections in both community and clinical settings. Here we present the complete, annotated genome of E. coli EC958, which was isolated from the urine of a patient presenting with a urinary tract infection in the Northwest region of England and represents the most well characterised ST131 strain. Sequencing was carried out using the Pacific Biosciences platform, which provided sufficient depth and read-length to produce a complete genome without the need for other technologies. The discovery of spurious contigs within the assembly that correspond to site-specific…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Resistance determinants and mobile genetic elements of an NDM-1-encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are emerging as a serious infectious disease challenge. These strains can accumulate many antibiotic resistance genes though horizontal transfer of genetic elements, those for ß-lactamases being of particular concern. Some ß-lactamases are active on a broad spectrum of ß-lactams including the last-resort carbapenems. The gene for the broad-spectrum and carbapenem-active metallo-ß-lactamase NDM-1 is rapidly spreading. We present the complete genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, the first U.S. isolate found to encode NDM-1, and describe its repertoire of antibiotic-resistance genes and mutations, including genes for eight ß-lactamases and 15 additional antibiotic-resistance enzymes. To elucidate the evolution of this…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Shared signatures of parasitism and phylogenomics unite Cryptomycota and microsporidia.

Fungi grow within their food, externally digesting it and absorbing nutrients across a semirigid chitinous cell wall. Members of the new phylum Cryptomycota were proposed to represent intermediate fungal forms, lacking a chitinous cell wall during feeding and known almost exclusively from ubiquitous environmental ribosomal RNA sequences that cluster at the base of the fungal tree [1, 2]. Here, we sequence the first Cryptomycotan genome (the water mold endoparasite Rozella allomycis) and unite the Cryptomycota with another group of endoparasites, the microsporidia, based on phylogenomics and shared genomic traits. We propose that Cryptomycota and microsporidia share a common endoparasitic ancestor,…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Population structure of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from midwestern U.S. hospitals.

Genome sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from regional U.S. hospitals was used to characterize strain diversity and the bla(KPC) genetic context. A phylogeny based on core single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) supports a division of sequence type 258 (ST258) into two distinct groups. The primary differences between the groups are in the capsular polysaccharide locus (cps) and their plasmid contents. A strict association between clade and KPC variant was found. The bla(KPC) gene was found on variants of two plasmid backbones. This study indicates that highly similar K. pneumoniae subpopulations coexist within the same hospitals over time. Copyright © 2014, American…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Rapid sequencing of complete env genes from primary HIV-1 samples

The ability to study rapidly evolving viral populations has been constrained by the read length of next-generation sequencing approaches and the sampling depth of single-genome amplification methods. Here, we develop and characterize a method using Pacific Biosciences Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing technology to sequence multiple, intact full-length human immunodeficiency virus-1 env genes amplified from viral RNA populations circulating in blood, and provide computational tools for analyzing and visualizing these data.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Sequencing of Australian wild rice genomes reveals ancestral relationships with domesticated rice.

The related A genome species of the Oryza genus are the effective gene pool for rice. Here, we report draft genomes for two Australian wild A genome taxa: O. rufipogon-like population, referred to as Taxon A, and O. meridionalis-like population, referred to as Taxon B. These two taxa were sequenced and assembled by integration of short- and long-read next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to create a genomic platform for a wider rice gene pool. Here, we report that, despite the distinct chloroplast genome, the nuclear genome of the Australian Taxon A has a sequence that is much closer to that of domesticated rice…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Linking secondary metabolites to gene clusters through genome sequencing of six diverse Aspergillus species.

The fungal genus ofAspergillusis highly interesting, containing everything from industrial cell factories, model organisms, and human pathogens. In particular, this group has a prolific production of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs). In this work, four diverseAspergillusspecies (A. campestris,A. novofumigatus,A. ochraceoroseus, andA. steynii) have been whole-genome PacBio sequenced to provide genetic references in threeAspergillussections.A. taichungensisandA. candidusalso were sequenced for SM elucidation. ThirteenAspergillusgenomes were analyzed with comparative genomics to determine phylogeny and genetic diversity, showing that each presented genome contains 15-27% genes not found in other sequenced Aspergilli. In particular,A. novofumigatuswas compared with the pathogenic speciesA. fumigatusThis suggests thatA. novofumigatuscan produce most of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete annotated genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Zopf) Lehmann and Neumann (ATCC35812) (Kurono).

We report the completely annotated genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Zopf) Lehmann and Neumann (ATCC35812) (Kurono), which is a used for virulence and/or immunization studies. The complete genome sequence of M. tuberculosis Kurono was determined with a length of 4,415,078 bp and a G+C content of 65.60%. The chromosome was shown to contain a total of 4,340 protein-coding genes, 53 tRNA genes, one transfer messenger RNA for all amino acids, and 1 rrn operon. Lineage analysis based on large sequence polymorphisms indicated that M. tuberculosis Kurono belongs to the Euro-American lineage (lineage 4). Phylogenetic analysis using whole genome sequences of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Burkholderia pseudomallei sequencing identifies genomic clades with distinct recombination, accessory, and epigenetic profiles.

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is the causative agent of the infectious disease melioidosis. To investigate population diversity, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer in closely related Bp isolates, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 106 clinical, animal, and environmental strains from a restricted Asian locale. Whole-genome phylogenies resolved multiple genomic clades of Bp, largely congruent with multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We discovered widespread recombination in the Bp core genome, involving hundreds of regions associated with multiple haplotypes. Highly recombinant regions exhibited functional enrichments that may contribute to virulence. We observed clade-specific patterns of recombination and accessory gene exchange, and provide evidence that…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Deinococcus swuensis, a bacterium resistant to radiation toxicity

Deinococcus swuensis DY59T is a Grampositive, coccus-shaped bacterium. Most members of the genus Deinococcus are able to grow in the presence of high levels of chronic radiation toxicity and desiccation because they can protect enzymes from reactive oxygen species generated during ionizing radiation. The mechanisms behind the resistance to radiation toxicity and the genomic features of resistance could be useful to exploit Deinococcus swuensis in the biotechnological applications such as detoxification of xenobiotic contaminated with radioactive wastes. Strain DY59T showed resistance to gamma radiation with a D10 value (i.e. the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by 10-fold) in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera.

Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393?Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140?My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Organellar genomes of the four-toothed moss, Tetraphis pellucida.

Mosses are the largest of the three extant clades of gametophyte-dominant land plants and remain poorly studied using comparative genomic methods. Major monophyletic moss lineages are characterised by different types of a spore dehiscence apparatus called the peristome, and the most important unsolved problem in higher-level moss systematics is the branching order of these peristomate clades. Organellar genome sequencing offers the potential to resolve this issue through the provision of both genomic structural characters and a greatly increased quantity of nucleotide substitution characters, as well as to elucidate organellar evolution in mosses. We publish and describe the chloroplast and mitochondrial…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis from group I.1b enriched from Everglades soil reveals novel genomic features of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

The activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) leads to the loss of nitrogen from soil, pollution of water sources and elevated emissions of greenhouse gas. To date, eight AOA genomes are available in the public databases, seven are from the group I.1a of the Thaumarchaeota and only one is from the group I.1b, isolated from hot springs. Many soils are dominated by AOA from the group I.1b, but the genomes of soil representatives of this group have not been sequenced and functionally characterized. The lack of knowledge of metabolic pathways of soil AOA presents a critical gap in understanding their role…

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