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March 1, 2018

Complete genome of Cobetia marina JCM 21022T and phylogenomic analysis of the family Halomonadaceae

Cobetia marina is a model proteobacteria in researches on marine biofouling. Its taxonomic nomenclature has been revised many times over the past few decades. To better understand the role of the surface-associated lifestyle of C. marina and the phylogeny of the family Halomonadaceae, we sequenced the entire genome of C. marina JCM 21022T using single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) and performed comparative genomics and phylogenomics analyses. The circular chromosome was 4 176 300 bp with an average GC content of 62.44% and contained 3 611 predicted coding sequences, 72 tRNA genes, and 21 rRNA genes. The C. marina JCM…

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March 1, 2018

A Sequel to Sanger: amplicon sequencing that scales.

Although high-throughput sequencers (HTS) have largely displaced their Sanger counterparts, the short read lengths and high error rates of most platforms constrain their utility for amplicon sequencing. The present study tests the capacity of single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing implemented on the SEQUEL platform to overcome these limitations, employing 658 bp amplicons of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as a model system.By examining templates from more than 5000 species and 20,000 specimens, the performance of SMRT sequencing was tested with amplicons showing wide variation in GC composition and varied sequence attributes. SMRT and Sanger sequences were very similar, but…

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July 5, 2017

Population genomics of picophytoplankton unveils novel chromosome hypervariability.

Tiny photosynthetic microorganisms that form the picoplankton (between 0.3 and 3 µm in diameter) are at the base of the food web in many marine ecosystems, and their adaptability to environmental change hinges on standing genetic variation. Although the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the bacterial component of the oceans has been intensively studied, little is known about the genomic and phenotypic diversity within each of the diverse eukaryotic species present. We report the level of genomic diversity in a natural population of Ostreococcus tauri (Chlorophyta, Mamiellophyceae), the smallest photosynthetic eukaryote. Contrary to the expectations of clonal evolution or cryptic…

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June 1, 2017

Genetic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis sequence type 7 serogroup X originating from serogroup A.

Neisseria meningitidis causes meningococcal disease, often resulting in fulminant meningitis, sepsis, and death. Vaccination programs have been developed to prevent infection of this pathogen, but serogroup replacement is a problem. Capsular switching has been an important survival mechanism for N. meningitidis, allowing the organism to evolve in the present vaccine era. However, related mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. Genetic analysis of capsular switching between diverse serogroups would help further our understanding of this pathogen. In this study, we analyzed the genetic characteristics of the sequence type 7 (ST-7) serogroup X strain that was predicted to arise from ST-7 serogroup…

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May 24, 2017

Evolutionary origin of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec).

Several lines of evidence indicate that the most primitive staphylococcal species, those of the Staphylococcus sciuri group, were involved in the first stages of evolution of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), the genetic element carrying the ß-lactam resistance gene mecA However, many steps are still missing from this evolutionary history. In particular, it is not known how mecA was incorporated into the mobile element SCC prior to dissemination among Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogenic staphylococcal species. To gain insights into the possible contribution of several species of the Staphylococcus sciuri group to the assembly of SCCmec, we sequenced the…

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May 15, 2017

Comparative genomic analysis reveals genetic features related to the virulence of Bacillus cereus FORC_013.

Bacillus cereus is well known as a gastrointestinal pathogen that causes food-borne illness. In the present study, we sequenced the complete genome of B. cereus FORC_013 isolated from fried eel in South Korea. To extend our understanding of the genomic characteristics of FORC_013, we conducted a comparative analysis with the published genomes of other B. cereus strains.We fully assembled the single circular chromosome (5,418,913 bp) and one plasmid (259,749 bp); 5511 open reading frames (ORFs) and 283 ORFs were predicted for the chromosome and plasmid, respectively. Moreover, we detected that the enterotoxin (NHE, HBL, CytK) induces food-borne illness with diarrheal symptom, and…

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May 12, 2017

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of tung tree (Vernicia fordii): Organization and phylogenetic relationships with other angiosperms.

Tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is an economically important tree widely cultivated for industrial oil production in China. To better understand the molecular basis of tung tree chloroplasts, we sequenced and characterized its genome using PacBio RS II sequencing platforms. The chloroplast genome was sequenced with 161,528?bp in length, composed with one pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,819?bp, which were separated by one small single copy (SSC; 18,758?bp) and one large single copy (LSC; 89,132?bp). The genome contains 114 genes, coding for 81 protein, four ribosomal RNAs and 29 transfer RNAs. An expansion with integration of an additional rps19 gene…

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May 4, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Dolosigranulum pigrum from a patient with interstitial lung disease using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology.

The whole genome sequence of Dolosigranulum pigrum isolated from the blood of a patient with interstitial lung disease was sequenced with the Pacific Biosciences RS II platform. The genome size is 2.1 Mb with 2,127 annotated coding sequences; it contained two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems. Copyright © 2017 Mukhopadhyay et al.

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April 20, 2017

Complete genome sequences of Mycobacterium kansasii strains isolated from rhesus macaques.

Mycobacterium kansasii is a nontuberculous mycobacterium. It causes opportunistic infections with pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations. We report here the complete genome sequences of two M. kansasii strains isolated from rhesus macaques. We performed genome comparisons with human and environmental isolates of M. kansasii to assess the genomic diversity of this species. Copyright © 2017 Panda et al.

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April 18, 2017

Genome mining and predictive functional profiling of acidophilic rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pt14.

Pseudomonas fluorescens Pt14 is a non-pathogenic and acidophilic bacterium isolated from acidic soil (pH 4.65). Genome sequencing of strain Pt14 was performed using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing to get insights into unique existence of this strain in acidic environment. Complete genome sequence of this strain revealed a chromosome of 5,841,722 bp having 5354 CDSs and 88 RNAs. Phylogenomic reconstruction based on 16S rRNA gene, Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) values and marker proteins revealed that strain Pt14 shared a common clade with P. fluorescens strain A506 and strain SS101. ANI value of strain Pt14 in relation to strain A506 was…

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April 14, 2017

Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae genomes to investigate underlying population structure and type-specific determinants.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a significant cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Despite a minimal and highly conserved genome, genetic diversity within the species may impact disease. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of 107 M. pneumoniae isolates, including 67 newly sequenced using the Pacific BioSciences RS II and/or Illumina MiSeq sequencing platforms. Comparative genomic analysis of 107 genomes revealed >3,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in total, including 520 type-specific SNPs. Population structure analysis supported the existence of six distinct subgroups, three within each type. We developed a predictive model to classify an isolate based on whole genome SNPs called against…

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April 7, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei LC5, a potential probiotics for atopic dermatitis.

Probiotics are living microorganisms providing health beneficial effect to the host (1). Probiotics have been used for the treatment or prevention of various diseases related to diarrhea (2), cho- lesterol (3) immune function (4), and inflammatory bowel disease (5). In addition, recent study also presents that probiotic bacteria in the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera are able to have therapeutic effects in the patients of psychological disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and memory (6).

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March 8, 2017

Hybrid sequencing and map finding (HySeMaFi): optional strategies for extensively deciphering gene splicing and expression in organisms without reference genome.

Using second-generation sequencing (SGS) RNA-Seq strategies, extensive alterative splicing prediction is impractical and high variability of isoforms expression quantification is inevitable in organisms without true reference dataset. we report the development of a novel analysis method, termed hybrid sequencing and map finding (HySeMaFi) which combines the specific strengths of third-generation sequencing (TGS) (PacBio SMRT sequencing) and SGS (Illumina Hi-Seq/MiSeq sequencing) to effectively decipher gene splicing and to reliably estimate the isoforms abundance. Error-corrected long reads from TGS are capable of capturing full length transcripts or as large partial transcript fragments. Both true and false isoforms, from a particular gene, as…

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February 28, 2017

Characterization of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope diversification from acute to chronic infection within a sexually transmitted HCV cluster by using single-molecule, real-time sequencing.

In contrast to other available next-generation sequencing platforms, PacBio single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing has the advantage of generating long reads albeit with a relatively higher error rate in unprocessed data. Using this platform, we longitudinally sampled and sequenced the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope genome region (1,680 nucleotides [nt]) from individuals belonging to a cluster of sexually transmitted cases. All five subjects were coinfected with HIV-1 and a closely related strain of HCV genotype 4d. In total, 50 samples were analyzed by using SMRT sequencing. By using 7 passes of circular consensus sequencing, the error rate was reduced to 0.37%,…

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