July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Sb3-1, a soilborne bacterium with antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens.

The genome of Paenibacillus polymyxa Sb3-1, a strain that shows antagonistic activities against pathogenic fungi and bacteria, consists of one 5.6-Mb circular chromosome and two plasmids of 223 kb and 8 kb. The genome reveals several genes that potentially contribute to its antagonistic and plant growth promotion activity. Copyright © 2015 Rybakova et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus beijingensis 7188(T) (=DSM 24997(T)), a novel rhizobacterium from jujube garden soil.

We present here the complete genome sequence of a novel species Paenibacillus beijingensis 7188(T) (=DSM 24997(T)) from jujube rhizosphere soil that consists of one circular chromosome of 5,749,967bp with a GC content of 52.5%. On the significance of first genome information in this species, the genome sequence of strain 7188(T) will provide a better comprehension of Paenibacillus species for the practical uses as a biofertilizer in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Paenibacillus larvae-directed bacteriophage HB10c2 and its application in American Foulbrood-affected honey bee larvae.

Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most serious honey bee brood bacterial disease. We isolated and characterized P. larvae-directed bacteriophages and developed criteria for safe phage therapy. Whole-genome analysis of a highly lytic virus of the family Siphoviridae (HB10c2) provided a detailed safety profile and uncovered its lysogenic nature and a putative beta-lactamase-like protein. To rate its antagonistic activity against the pathogens targeted and to specify potentially harmful effects on the bee population and the environment, P. larvae genotypes ERIC I to IV, representatives of the bee gut microbiota, and a broad panel of members of the order Bacillales were analyzed for phage HB10c2-induced lysis. Breeding assays with infected bee larvae revealed that the in vitro phage activity observed was not predictive of the real-life scenario and therapeutic efficacy. On the basis of the disclosed P. larvae-bacteriophage coevolution, we discuss the future prospects of AFB phage therapy. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Isolation and characterization of an interactive culture of two Paenibacillus species with moderately thermophilic desulfurization ability.

To isolate and characterize novel thermophilic bacteria capable of biodesulfurization of petroleum.A culture containing two Paenibacillus spp. (denoted “32O-W” and “32O-Y”) was isolated by repeated passage of a soil sample at up to 55 °C in medium containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) as sulfur source. Only 32O-Y metabolized DBT, apparently via the 4S pathway; maximum activity occurred from 40 to 45 °C, with some activity up to at least 50 °C. 32O-W enhanced DBT metabolism by 32O-Y (by 22-74 % at 40-50 °C). With sulfate as sulfur source, 32O-Y and 32O-W grew well up to 58 and 63 °C, respectively. Selection of a mixed culture of 32O-Y and 32O-W at 54 °C increased DBT metabolism 36-42 % from 40 to 45 °C. Genome sequencing identified desulfurization gene homologs in the strains consistent with their desulfurization properties.The 32O-Y/32O-W culture may be a useful starting point for development of an improved thermophilic petroleum biodesulfurization process.


July 7, 2019  |  

Identification and structural characterization of naturally-occurring broad-spectrum cyclic antibiotics isolated from Paenibacillus.

The rise of antimicrobial resistance necessitates the discovery and/or production of novel antibiotics. Isolated strains of Paenibacillus alvei were previously shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a number of pathogens, such as E. coli, Salmonella, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The responsible antimicrobial compounds were isolated from these Paenibacillus strains and a combination of low and high resolution mass spectrometry with multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry was used for identification. A group of closely related cyclic lipopeptides was identified, differing primarily by fatty acid chain length and one of two possible amino acid substitutions. Variation in the fatty acid length resulted in mass differences of 14 Da and yielded groups of related MS(n) spectra. Despite the inherent complexity of MS/MS spectra of cyclic compounds, straightforward analysis of these spectra was accomplished by determining differences in complementary product ion series between compounds that differ in molecular weight by 14 Da. The primary peptide sequence assignment was confirmed through genome mining; the combination of these analytical tools represents a workflow that can be used for the identification of complex antibiotics. The compounds also share amino acid sequence similarity to a previously identified broad-spectrum antibiotic isolated from Paenibacillus. The presence of such a wide distribution of related compounds produced by the same organism represents a novel class of broad-spectrum antibiotic compounds.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14, an antagonistic root endophyte of Matricaria chamomilla.

Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 was isolated from the inner root tissue of Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile). Mc5Re-14 revealed promising in vitro antagonistic activity against plant and opportunistic human pathogens. The 6.0-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively involved in pathogen suppression and direct and indirect plant growth promotion. Copyright © 2015 Köberl et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Four complete Paenibacillus larvae genome sequences.

Four complete genome sequences of genetically distinct Paenibacillus larvae strains have been determined. Pacific BioSciences single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology was used as the sole method of sequence determination and assembly. The chromosomes exhibited a G+C content of 44.1 to 44.2% and a molecular size range of 4.29 to 4.67 Mbp. Copyright © 2017 Dingman.


July 7, 2019  |  

High-quality draft genome sequences of four lignocellulose-degrading bacteria isolated from Puerto Rican forest soil: Gordonia sp., Paenibacillus sp., Variovorax sp., and Vogesella sp.

Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequences of four phylogenetically diverse lignocellulose-degrading bacteria isolated from tropical soil (Gordonia sp., Paenibacillus sp., Variovorax sp., and Vogesella sp.) to elucidate the genetic basis of their ability to degrade lignocellulose. These isolates may provide novel enzymes for biofuel production. Copyright © 2017 Woo et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Characterization of the polymyxin D synthetase biosynthetic cluster and product profile of Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401.

The increasing prevalence of polymyxin-resistant bacteria has stimulated the search for improved polymyxin lipopeptides. Here we describe the sequence and product profile for polymyxin D nonribosomal peptide synthetase from Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401. The polymyxin D synthase gene cluster comprised five genes that encoded ABC transporters (pmxC and pmxD) and enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of polymyxin D (pmxA, pmxB, and pmxE). Unlike polymyxins B and E, polymyxin D contains d-Ser at position 3 as opposed to l-a,?-diaminobutyric acid and has an l-Thr at position 7 rather than l-Leu. Module 3 of pmxE harbored an auxiliary epimerization domain that catalyzes the conversion of l-Ser to the d-form. Structural modeling suggested that the adenylation domains of module 3 in PmxE and modules 6 and 7 in PmxA could bind amino acids with larger side chains than their preferred substrate. Feeding individual amino acids into the culture media not only affected production of polymyxins D1 and D2 but also led to the incorporation of different amino acids at positions 3, 6, and 7 of polymyxin D. Interestingly, the unnatural polymyxin analogues did not show antibiotic activity against a panel of Gram-negative clinical isolates, while the natural polymyxins D1 and D2 exhibited excellent in vitro antibacterial activity and were efficacious against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii in a mouse blood infection model. The results demonstrate the excellent antibacterial activity of these unusual d-Ser(3) polymxyins and underscore the possibility of incorporating alternate amino acids at positions 3, 6, and 7 of polymyxin D via manipulation of the polymyxin nonribosomal biosynthetic machinery.


July 7, 2019  |  

Paenibacillus ihbetae sp. nov., a cold-adapted antimicrobial producing bacterium isolated from high altitude Suraj Tal Lake in the Indian trans-Himalayas.

The assessment of bacterial diversity and bioprospection of the high-altitude lake Suraj Tal microorganisms for potent antimicrobial activities revealed the presence of two Gram-stain-variable, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria, namely IHBB 9852(T) and IHBB 9951. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the affiliation of strains IHBB 9852(T) and IHBB 9951 within the genus Paenibacillus, exhibiting the highest sequence similarity to Paenibacillus lactis DSM 15596(T) (97.8% and 97.7%) and less than 95.9% similarity to other species of the genus Paenibacillus. DNA-DNA relatedness among strains IHBB 9852(T) and IHBB 9951 was 90.2%, and with P. lactis DSM 15596(T), was 52.7% and 52.4%, respectively. The novel strains contain anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, C16:0 and iso-C16:0 as major fatty acids, and phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol were predominant polar lipids. The DNA G+C content for IHBB 9852T and IHBB 9951 was 52.1 and 52.2mol%. Based on the results of phenotypic and genomic characterisations, we concluded that strains IHBB 9852(T) and IHBB 9951 belong to a novel Paenibacillus species, for which the name Paenibacillus ihbetae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IHBB 9852(T) (=MTCC 12459(T)=MCC 2795(T)=JCM 31131(T)=KACC 19072(T); DPD TaxonNumber TA00046) and IHBB 9951 (=MTCC 12458=MCC 2794=JCM 31132=KACC 19073) is a reference strain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84(T), a novel plant symbiont that promotes growth via induced systemic resistance.

This article reports the full genome sequence of Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84(T) (KCTC33428, JCM19885), which is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium isolated from humus soil of Yongin Forest in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The genome sequence of strain DCY84(T) provides greater understanding of the Paenibacillus species for practical use. This bacterium displays plant growth promotion via induced systemic resistance of abiotic stresses.


July 7, 2019  |  

Purification and characterization of a novel milk-clotting metalloproteinase from Paenibacillus spp. BD3526.

In this study, a milk-clotting enzyme (MCE) isolated from Paenibacillus spp. BD3526 was purified and characterized. The MCE was purified 8.9-fold with a 10.11% recovery using ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography and the specific milk-clotting activity (MCA) reached 6791.73SU/mg. The enzyme was characterized as a 35kDa metalloproteinase, and the zymogen of which was encoded by a 1671bp gene named zinc metalloproteinase precursor (zmp) with a predicted molecular weight of 59.6kDa. The optimal temperature for MCA and proteolytic activity (PA) was 65°C and 60°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a pH range of 5.0-9.0 and at temperatures below 50°C. The MCA was completely inactivated when the enzyme was heated at 60°C for 30min, and the PA was totally inactivated for 20 and 10min when the enzyme was heated at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. The BD3526 enzyme was preferentially active towards ?-casein (?-CN) and ß-casein (ß-CN), as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE), whereas the hydrolysis of as-casein (as-CN) was slow and comparable to that caused by chymosin and asparatic acid proteinase from Rhizomucor miehei. The cleavage site of the metalloproteinase in ?-CN was located at the Met106-Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.


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