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February 1, 2019

A high-quality draft genome assembly of Sinella curviseta: A soil model organism (Collembola).

Sinella curviseta, among the most widespread springtails (Collembola) in Northern Hemisphere, has often been treated as a model organism in soil ecology and environmental toxicology. However, little information on its genetic knowledge severely hinders our understanding of its adaptations to the soil habitat. We present the largest genome assembly within Collembola using ~44.86?Gb (118X) of single-molecule real-time Pacific Bioscience Sequel sequencing. The final assembly of 599 scaffolds was ~381.46?Mb with a N50 length of 3.28?Mb, which captured 95.3% complete and 1.5% partial arthropod Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (n?=?1066). Transcripts and circularized mitochondrial genome were also assembled. We predicted 23,943 protein-coding…

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January 1, 2019

Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Kaempferia galanga and Kaempferia elegans: Molecular structures and comparative analysis.

Kaempferia galanga and Kaempferia elegans, which belong to the genus Kaempferia family Zingiberaceae, are used as valuable herbal medicine and ornamental plants, respectively. The chloroplast genomes have been used for molecular markers, species identification and phylogenetic studies. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of K. galanga and K. elegans are reported. Results show that the complete chloroplast genome of K. galanga is 163,811 bp long, having a quadripartite structure with large single copy (LSC) of 88,405 bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 15,812 bp separated by inverted repeats (IRs) of 29,797 bp. Similarly, the complete chloroplast…

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November 1, 2018

The genome of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata provides insight into the biosynthesis of the bioactive diterpenoid neoandrographolide.

Andrographis paniculata is a herbaceous dicot plant widely used for its anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties across its distribution in China, India and other Southeast Asian countries. A. paniculata was used as a crucial therapeutic treatment during the influenza epidemic of 1919 in India, and is still used for the treatment of infectious disease in China. A. paniculata produces large quantities of the anti-inflammatory diterpenoid lactones andrographolide and neoandrographolide, and their analogs, which are touted to be the next generation of natural anti-inflammatory medicines for lung diseases, hepatitis, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune disorders and inflammatory skin diseases. Here, we report a chromosome-scale A. paniculata genome…

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October 1, 2018

The pathogenic mechanisms of Tilletia horrida as revealed by comparative and functional genomics.

Tilletia horrida is a soil-borne, mononucleate basidiomycete fungus with a biotrophic lifestyle that causes rice kernel smut, a disease that is distributed throughout hybrid rice growing areas worldwide. Here we report on the high-quality genome sequence of T. horrida; it is composed of 23.2?Mb that encode 7,729 predicted genes and 6,973 genes supported by RNA-seq. The genome contains few repetitive elements that account for 8.45% of the total. Evolutionarily, T. horrida lies close to the Ustilago fungi, suggesting grass species as potential hosts, but co-linearity was not observed between T. horrida and the barley smut Ustilago hordei. Genes and functions…

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October 1, 2018

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus cereus CC-1, a novel marine selenate/selenite reducing bacterium producing metallic selenides nanomaterials.

Metallic selenides nanomaterials are widely used in many fields, especially for photothermal therapy and thermoelectric devices. However, the traditional chemogenic methods are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. In this study, the first complete genome data of a metallic selenides producing bacterium Bacillus cereus CC-1 was reported. This strain can not only reduce selenite and selenate into elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), but also synthesize several metallic selenides nanoparticles when adding metal ions (Pb2+, Ag+ and Bi3+) and selenite simultaneously. The size of the genome is 5,308,319 bp with 36.07% G+C content. Several putative genes responsible for heavy metal resistance, salt resistance, and selenate…

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September 1, 2018

Draft genome of Glyptosternon maculatum, an endemic fish from Tibet Plateau.

Mechanisms for high-altitude adaption have attracted widespread interest among evolutionary biologists. Several genome-wide studies have been carried out for endemic vertebrates in Tibet, including mammals, birds, and amphibians. However, little information is available about the adaptive evolution of highland fishes. Glyptosternon maculatum (Regan 1905), also known as Regan or barkley and endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, belongs to the Sisoridae family, order Siluriformes (catfishes). This species lives at an elevation ranging from roughly 2,800 m to 4,200 m. Hence, a high-quality reference genome of G. maculatum provides an opportunity to investigate high-altitude adaption mechanisms of fishes.To obtain a high-quality reference…

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August 1, 2018

Temperature responses of mutation rate and mutational spectrum in an Escherichia coli strain and the correlation with metabolic rate.

Temperature is a major determinant of spontaneous mutation, but the precise mode, and the underlying mechanisms, of the temperature influences remain less clear. Here we used a mutation accumulation approach combined with whole-genome sequencing to investigate the temperature dependence of spontaneous mutation in an Escherichia coli strain. Experiments were performed under aerobic conditions at 25, 28 and 37 °C, three temperatures that were non-stressful for the bacterium but caused significantly different bacterial growth rates.Mutation rate did not differ between 25 and 28 °C, but was higher at 37 °C. Detailed analyses of the molecular spectrum of mutations were performed; and a particularly interesting…

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July 20, 2018

Response of hypogean actinobacterial genera secondary metabolism to chemical and biological stimuli.

Microorganisms within microbial communities respond to environmental challenges by producing biologically active secondary metabolites, yet the majority of these small molecules remain unidentified. We have previously demonstrated that secondary metabolite biosynthesis in actinomycetes can be activated by model environmental chemical and biological stimuli, and metabolites can be identified by comparative metabolomics analyses between stimuli conditions. Herein, we survey the secondary metabolite productivity of a group of 20 phylogenetically diverse actinobacteria isolated from hypogean (cave) environments by applying a battery of stimuli consisting of exposure to antibiotics, metals, and mixed microbial culture. Comparative metabolomics was used to reveal secondary metabolite responses…

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July 1, 2018

Complete genome sequence of the dissimilatory azo reducing thermophilic bacterium Novibacillus thermophiles SG-1.

With the isolation and identification of efficient azo-dye degradation bacteria, bioaugmentation with specific microbial strains has now become an effective strategy to promote the bioremediation of azo dye. However, Azo dye wastewater discharged at high temperature restricted the extensive application of the known mesophilic azoreducing microorganisms. Here we present the complete genome sequence of a bacterium capable of reducing azo dye under thermophilic condition, Novibacillus thermophiles SG-1 (=KCTC 33118T =CGMCC 1.12363T). The complete genome of strain SG-1 contains a circular chromosome of 3,629,225 bp with a G?+?C content of 50.44%. Genome analysis revealed that strain SG-1 possessed genes encoding riboflavin…

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July 1, 2018

Comparative genomic analysis revealed rapid differentiation in the pathogenicity-related gene repertoires between Pyricularia oryzae and Pyricularia penniseti isolated from a Pennisetum grass

Backgrounds: Pyricularia is a multispecies complex that could infect and cause severe blast disease on diverse hosts, including rice, wheat and many other grasses. Although the genome size of this fungal complex is small [~40 Mbp for Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae), and ~45 Mbp for P. grisea], the genome plasticity allows the fungus to jump and adapt to new hosts. Therefore, deciphering the genome basis of individual species could facilitate the evolutionary and genetic study of this fungus. However, except for the P. oryzae subgroup, many other species isolated from diverse hosts, such as the Pennisetum grasses, remain largely…

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June 27, 2018

Clinical Staphylococcus argenteus develops to small colony variants to promote persistent infection.

Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel staphylococcal species (also considered as a part of Staphylococcus aureus complex) that is infrequently reported on, and clinical S. argenteus infections are largely unstudied. Here, we report a persistent and recurrent hip joint infection case in which a S. argenteus strain and its small colony variants (SCVs) strain were successively isolated. We present features of the two S. argenteus strains and case details of their pathogenicity, explore factors that induce S. argenteus SCVs formation in the course of anti-infection therapy, and reveal potential genetic mechanisms for S. argenteus SCVs formation. S. argenteus strains were identified…

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May 1, 2018

Precise control of SCRaMbLE in synthetic haploid and diploid yeast.

Compatibility between host cells and heterologous pathways is a challenge for constructing organisms with high productivity or gain of function. Designer yeast cells incorporating the Synthetic Chromosome Rearrangement and Modification by LoxP-mediated Evolution (SCRaMbLE) system provide a platform for generating genotype diversity. Here we construct a genetic AND gate to enable precise control of the SCRaMbLE method to generate synthetic haploid and diploid yeast with desired phenotypes. The yield of carotenoids is increased to 1.5-fold by SCRaMbLEing haploid strains and we determine that the deletion of YEL013W is responsible for the increase. Based on the SCRaMbLEing in diploid strains, we…

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May 1, 2018

Genome-wide analysis of Mycoplasma bovirhinis GS01 reveals potential virulence factors and phylogenetic relationships.

Mycoplasma bovirhinis is a significant etiology in bovine pneumonia and mastitis, but our knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic mechanisms of M. bovirhinis is very limited. In this study, we sequenced the complete genome of M. bovirhinis strain GS01 isolated from the nasal swab of pneumonic calves in Gansu, China, and we found that its genome forms a 847,985 bp single circular chromosome with a GC content of 27.57% and with 707 protein-coding genes. The putative virulence determinants of M. bovirhinis were then analyzed. Results showed that three genomic islands and 16 putative virulence genes, including one adhesion gene enolase,…

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April 1, 2018

Heterologous expression guides identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster of chuangxinmycin, an indole alkaloid antibiotic.

The indole alkaloid antibiotic chuangxinmycin, from Actinobacteria Actinoplanes tsinanensis, containing a unique thiopyrano[4,3,2- cd]indole scaffold, is a potent and selective inhibitor of bacterial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. The chuangxinmycin biosynthetic gene cluster was identified by in silico analysis of the genome sequence, then verified by heterologous expression. Systemic gene inactivation and intermediate identification determined the minimum set of genes for unique thiopyrano[4,3,2- cd]indole formation and the concerted action of a radical S-adenosylmethionine protein plus an unknown protein for addition of the 3-methyl group. These findings set a solid foundation for comprehensively investigating the biosynthesis, optimizing yield, and generating new analogues of chuangxinmycin.

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