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August 1, 2019

Newly designed 16S rRNA metabarcoding primers amplify diverse and novel archaeal taxa from the environment.

High-throughput studies of microbial communities suggest that Archaea are a widespread component of microbial diversity in various ecosystems. However, proper quantification of archaeal diversity and community ecology remains limited, as sequence coverage of Archaea is usually low owing to the inability of available prokaryotic primers to efficiently amplify archaeal compared to bacterial rRNA genes. To improve identification and quantification of Archaea, we designed and validated the utility of several primer pairs to efficiently amplify archaeal 16S rRNA genes based on up-to-date reference genes. We demonstrate that several of these primer pairs amplify phylogenetically diverse Archaea with high sequencing coverage, outperforming…

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April 1, 2019

Massive Changes of Genome Size Driven by Expansions of Non-autonomous Transposable Elements.

In eukaryotes, genome size correlates little with the number of coding genes or the level of organismal complexity (C-value paradox). The underlying causes of variations in genome size, whether adaptive or neutral, remain unclear, although several biological traits often covary with it [1-5]. Rapid increases in genome size occur mainly through whole-genome duplications or bursts in the activity of transposable elements (TEs) [6]. The very small and compact genome of Oikopleura dioica, a tunicate of the larvacean class, lacks elements of most ancient families of animal retrotransposons [7, 8]. Here, we sequenced the genomes of six other larvaceans, all of…

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March 1, 2019

Phylogenetic barriers to horizontal transfer of antimicrobial peptide resistance genes in the human gut microbiota.

The human gut microbiota has adapted to the presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are ancient components of immune defence. Despite its medical importance, it has remained unclear whether AMP resistance genes in the gut microbiome are available for genetic exchange between bacterial species. Here, we show that AMP resistance and antibiotic resistance genes differ in their mobilization patterns and functional compatibilities with new bacterial hosts. First, whereas AMP resistance genes are widespread in the gut microbiome, their rate of horizontal transfer is lower than that of antibiotic resistance genes. Second, gut microbiota culturing and functional metagenomics have revealed that…

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January 1, 2019

Long-read sequence capture of the haemoglobin gene clusters across codfish species.

Combining high-throughput sequencing with targeted sequence capture has become an attractive tool to study specific genomic regions of interest. Most studies have so far focused on the exome using short-read technology. These approaches are not designed to capture intergenic regions needed to reconstruct genomic organization, including regulatory regions and gene synteny. Here, we demonstrate the power of combining targeted sequence capture with long-read sequencing technology for comparative genomic analyses of the haemoglobin (Hb) gene clusters across eight species separated by up to 70 million years. Guided by the reference genome assembly of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) together with genome…

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December 1, 2018

Three New Genome Assemblies Support a Rapid Radiation in Musa acuminata (Wild Banana).

Edible bananas result from interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, as well as among subspecies in M. acuminata. Four particular M. acuminata subspecies have been proposed as the main contributors of edible bananas, all of which radiated in a short period of time in southeastern Asia. Clarifying the evolution of these lineages at a whole-genome scale is therefore an important step toward understanding the domestication and diversification of this crop. This study reports the de novo genome assembly and gene annotation of a representative genotype from three different subspecies of M. acuminata. These data are combined with the…

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November 1, 2018

Thermosipho spp. immune system differences affect variation in genome size and geographical distributions.

Thermosipho species inhabit thermal environments such as marine hydrothermal vents, petroleum reservoirs, and terrestrial hot springs. A 16S rRNA phylogeny of available Thermosipho spp. sequences suggested habitat specialists adapted to living in hydrothermal vents only, and habitat generalists inhabiting oil reservoirs, hydrothermal vents, and hotsprings. Comparative genomics of 15 Thermosipho genomes separated them into three distinct species with different habitat distributions: The widely distributed T. africanus and the more specialized, T. melanesiensis and T. affectus. Moreover, the species can be differentiated on the basis of genome size (GS), genome content, and immune system composition. For instance, the T. africanus genomes…

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November 1, 2018

A continuous genome assembly of the corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops).

The wrasses (Labridae) are one of the most successful and species-rich families of the Perciformes order of teleost fish. Its members display great morphological diversity, and occupy distinct trophic levels in coastal waters and coral reefs. The cleaning behaviour displayed by some wrasses, such as corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), is of particular interest for the salmon aquaculture industry to combat and control sea lice infestation as an alternative to chemicals and pharmaceuticals. There are still few genome assemblies available within this fish family for comparative and functional studies, despite the rapid increase in genome resources generated during the past years.…

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September 13, 2018

The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) genome and transcriptome assembly.

Arctic charr have a circumpolar distribution, persevere under extreme environmental conditions, and reach ages unknown to most other salmonids. The Salvelinus genus is primarily composed of species with genomes that are structured more like the ancestral salmonid genome than most Oncorhynchus and Salmo species of sister genera. It is thought that this aspect of the genome may be important for local adaptation (due to increased recombination) and anadromy (the migration of fish from saltwater to freshwater). In this study, we describe the generation of a new genetic map, the sequencing and assembly of the Arctic charr genome (GenBank accession: GCF_002910315.2)…

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September 6, 2018

Complete genome sequence of herpes simplex virus 2 strain 333.

Herpes simplex virus 2, or human herpesvirus 2, is a ubiquitous human pathogen that causes genital ulcerations and establishes latency in sacral root ganglia. We fully sequenced and manually curated the viral genome sequence of herpes simplex virus 2, strain 333 using Pacific Biosciences and Illumina sequencing technologies.

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August 1, 2018

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa K34-7, a carbapenem-resistant isolate of the high-risk sequence type 233.

Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is defined as a textquotedblleftcriticaltextquotedblright priority pathogen for the development of new antibiotics. Here we report the complete genome sequence of an extensively drug-resistant, Verona integron-encoded metallo-ß-lactamase-expressing isolate belonging to the high-risk sequence type 233.

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July 1, 2018

Enigmatic Diphyllatea eukaryotes: culturing and targeted PacBio RS amplicon sequencing reveals a higher order taxonomic diversity and global distribution.

The class Diphyllatea belongs to a group of enigmatic unicellular eukaryotes that play a key role in reconstructing the morphological innovation and diversification of early eukaryotic evolution. Despite its evolutionary significance, very little is known about the phylogeny and species diversity of Diphyllatea. Only three species have described morphology, being taxonomically divided by flagella number, two or four, and cell size. Currently, one 18S rRNA Diphyllatea sequence is available, with environmental sequencing surveys reporting only a single partial sequence from a Diphyllatea-like organism. Accordingly, geographical distribution of Diphyllatea based on molecular data is limited, despite morphological data suggesting the class…

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June 1, 2018

Directed evolution of multiple genomic loci allows the prediction of antibiotic resistance.

Antibiotic development is frequently plagued by the rapid emergence of drug resistance. However, assessing the risk of resistance development in the preclinical stage is difficult. Standard laboratory evolution approaches explore only a small fraction of the sequence space and fail to identify exceedingly rare resistance mutations and combinations thereof. Therefore, new rapid and exhaustive methods are needed to accurately assess the potential of resistance evolution and uncover the underlying mutational mechanisms. Here, we introduce directed evolution with random genomic mutations (DIvERGE), a method that allows an up to million-fold increase in mutation rate along the full lengths of multiple predefined…

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May 1, 2018

Spread of plasmid-encoded NDM-1 and GES-5 carbapenemases among extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant clinical Enterobacteriaceae in Durban, South Africa.

Whole-genome sequence analyses revealed the presence of blaNDM-1 (n = 31), blaGES-5 (n = 8), blaOXA-232 (n = 1), or blaNDM-5 (n = 1) in extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae organisms isolated from in-patients in 10 private hospitals (2012 to 2013) in Durban, South Africa. Two novel NDM-1-encoding plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae were circularized by PacBio sequencing. In p19-10_01 [IncFIB(K); 223.434 bp], blaNDM-1 was part of a Tn1548-like structure (16.276 bp) delineated by IS26 The multireplicon plasmid p18-43_01 [IncR_1/IncFIB(pB171)/IncFII(Yp); 212.326 bp] shared an 80-kb region with p19-10_01, not including the blaNDM-1-containing region. The two plasmids were used as references for…

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April 10, 2018

Genomic architecture of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) shows expansions of innate immune genes and short tandem repeats.

Increased availability of genome assemblies for non-model organisms has resulted in invaluable biological and genomic insight into numerous vertebrates, including teleosts. Sequencing of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome and the genomes of many of its relatives (Gadiformes) demonstrated a shared loss of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II genes 100 million years ago. An improved version of the Atlantic cod genome assembly shows an extreme density of tandem repeats compared to other vertebrate genome assemblies. Highly contiguous assemblies are therefore needed to further investigate the unusual immune system of the Gadiformes, and whether the high density of tandem repeats…

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April 1, 2018

Complete genome sequences of seven Vibrio anguillarum strains as derived from PacBio sequencing.

We report here the complete genome sequences of seven Vibrio anguillarum strains isolated from multiple geographic locations, thus increasing the total number of genomes of finished quality to 11. The genomes were de novo assembled from long-sequence PacBio reads. Including draft genomes, a total of 44?V. anguillarum genomes are currently available in the genome databases. They represent an important resource in the study of, for example, genetic variations and for identifying virulence determinants. In this article, we present the genomes and basic genome comparisons of the 11 complete genomes, including a BRIG analysis, and pan genome calculation. We also describe…

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