Whole genome sequencing analysis of the cutaneous pathogenic yeast Malassezia restricta and identification of the major lipase expressed on the scalp of patients with dandruff.
Malassezia species are opportunistic pathogenic fungi that are frequently associated with seborrhoeic dermatitis, including dandruff. Most Malassezia species are lipid dependent, a property that is compensated by breaking down host sebum into fatty acids by lipases. In this study, we aimed to sequence and analyse the whole genome of Malassezia restricta KCTC 27527, a clinical isolate from a Korean patient with severe dandruff, to search for lipase orthologues and identify the lipase that is the most frequently expressed on the scalp of patients with dandruff. The genome of M. restricta KCTC 27527 was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq and PacBio platforms. Lipase orthologues were identified by comparison with known lipase genes in the genomes of Malassezia globosa and Malassezia sympodialis. The expression of the identified lipase genes was directly evaluated in swab samples from the scalps of 56 patients with dandruff. We found that, among the identified lipase-encoding genes, the gene encoding lipase homolog MRES_03670, named LIP5 in this study, was the most frequently expressed lipase in the swab samples. Our study provides an overview of the genome of a clinical isolate of M. restricta and fundamental information for elucidating the role of lipases during fungus-host interaction.© 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.