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Friday, July 19, 2019

Evolution of hypervirulence by a MRSA clone through acquisition of a transposable element.

Staphylococcus aureus has evolved as a pathogen that causes a range of diseases in humans. There are two dominant modes of evolution thought to explain most of the virulence differences between strains. First, virulence genes may be acquired from other organisms. Second, mutations may cause changes in the regulation and expression of genes. Here we describe an evolutionary event in which transposition of an IS element has a direct impact on virulence gene regulation resulting in hypervirulence. Whole-genome analysis of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain USA500 revealed acquisition of a transposable element (IS256) that is absent from close relatives…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single-molecule sequencing reveals the molecular basis of multidrug-resistance in ST772 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-associated infection, but there is growing awareness of the emergence of multidrug-resistant lineages in community settings around the world. One such lineage is ST772-MRSA-V, which has disseminated globally and is increasingly prevalent in India. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of DAR4145, a strain of the ST772-MRSA-V lineage from India, and investigate its genomic characteristics in regards to antibiotic resistance and virulence factors.Sequencing using single-molecule real-time technology resulted in the assembly of a single continuous chromosomal sequence, which was error-corrected, annotated and compared to nine draft genome assemblies of ST772-MRSA-V…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Parallel epidemics of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 infection in North and South America.

The community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in the United States is attributed to the spread of the USA300 clone. An epidemic of CA-MRSA closely related to USA300 has occurred in northern South America (USA300 Latin-American variant, USA300-LV). Using phylogenomic analysis, we aimed to understand the relationships between these 2 epidemics.We sequenced the genomes of 51 MRSA clinical isolates collected between 1999 and 2012 from the United States, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer the relationships and times since the divergence of the major clades.Phylogenetic analyses revealed 2 dominant clades that segregated by geographical region, had…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous abscesses and selection of reduced chlorhexidine susceptibility during chlorhexidine use.

We describe the selection of reduced chlorhexidine susceptibility during chlorhexidine use in a patient with two episodes of cutaneous USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus abscess. The second clinical isolate harbors a novel plasmid that encodes the QacA efflux pump. Greater use of chlorhexidine for disease prevention warrants surveillance for resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single-molecule sequencing (PacBio) of the Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A clone reveals the basis of multidrug resistance and adaptation to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit environment.

The multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a major pathogen causing nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates worldwide. NRCS-A representatives exhibit an atypical antibiotic resistance profile. Here, the complete closed genome (chromosomal and plasmid sequences) of NRCS-A prototype strain CR01 and the draft genomes of three other clinical NRCS-A strains from Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom are annotated and compared to available non-NRCS-A S. capitis genomes. Our goal was to delineate the uniqueness of the NRCS-A clone with respect to antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and mobile genetic elements. We identified 6 antimicrobial resistance genes,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Z172, a vancomycin-intermediate and daptomycin-nonsusceptible methicillin-resistant strain isolated in Taiwan.

We report the complete genome sequence of Z172, a representative strain of sequence type 239-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type III (ST239-SCCmec type III) hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan. Strain Z172 also exhibits a vancomycin-intermediate and daptomycin-nonsusceptible phenotype.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Turkey meat as source of CC9/CC398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in humans?

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of clonal complex (CC) 398 were first reported to cause severe infections in humans in 2005 [1]. Direct animal exposure is considered the most effective means of MRSA CC398 transmission from livestock to humans. However, about 20%–38% of MRSA CC398 cases among humans cannot be epidemiologically linked to direct livestock contact, indicating other transmission pathways [2]. As recently reported in this journal by Larsen et al [3], poultry meat may serve as a vehicle for livestock-to-human transmission. Here, we present similar findings for CC9/CC398 MRSA (displaying spa type t899 and related), which shares unique characteristics…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The recent emergence in hospitals of multidrug-resistant community-associated sequence type 1 and spa type t127 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus investigated by whole-genome sequencing: Implications for screening.

Community-associated spa type t127/t922 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence increased from 1%-7% in Ireland between 2010-2015. This study tracked the spread of 89 such isolates from June 2013-June 2016. These included 78 healthcare-associated and 11 community associated-MRSA isolates from a prolonged hospital outbreak (H1) (n = 46), 16 other hospitals (n = 28), four other healthcare facilities (n = 4) and community-associated sources (n = 11). Isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, DNA microarray profiling and whole-genome sequencing. Minimum spanning trees were generated following core-genome multilocus sequence typing and pairwise single nucleotide variation (SNV) analysis was performed. All isolates were sequence…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Acquisition of virulence factors in livestock-associated MRSA: Lysogenic conversion of CC398 strains by virulence gene-containing phages.

Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains belonging to the clonal complex 398 (CC398) are highly prevalent in livestock and companion animals but may also cause serious infections in humans. CC398 strains in livestock usually do not possess well-known virulence factors that can be frequently found in other MRSA sequence types (ST). Since many staphylococcal virulence genes are residing on the genomes of temperate phages, the question arises why livestock-associated (LA-) CC398 strains are only rarely infected by those phages. We isolated and characterized four temperate phages (P240, P282, P630 and P1105) containing genes of the immune evasion cluster (IEC) and/or for the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus hypervirulent strain, USA300-C2406, isolated from a patient with a lethal case of necrotizing pneumonia.

USA300 is a predominant community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain causing significant morbidity and mortality. We present here the full annotated genome of a USA300 hypervirulent clinical strain, USA300-C2406, isolated from a patient with a lethal case of necrotizing pneumonia, to gain a better understanding of USA300 hypervirulence. Copyright © 2017 McClure and Zhang.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of five representative Staphylococcus aureus ST398 strains from five major sequence heterogeneity groups of a diverse isolate collection.

Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 398 (ST398) is a rapidly emerging livestock-associated strain causing zoonotic disease in humans. The course of pathogen evolution remains unclear, prompting whole-genome comparative studies in attempts to elucidate this issue. We present the full, annotated genomes of five newly isolated representative ST398 strains from five major sequence heterogeneity groups of our diverse isolate collection. Copyright © 2017 McClure and Zhang.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonizing strain M92.

M92 is a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizing strain belonging to ST239-MRSA-III. It frequently shows local nasal colonization in our hospital staff, but has never been associated with infection. We sequenced the complete genome of M92, in order to compare it to highly virulent MRSA strains to gain insight into MRSA virulence factors. Copyright © 2017 McClure and Zhang.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Staphylococcus aureus CC395 harbours a novel composite staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element.

CoNS species are likely reservoirs of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) in Staphylococcus aureus . S . aureus CC395 is unique as it is capable of exchanging DNA with CoNS via bacteriophages, which are also known to mediate transfer of SCC mec .To analyse the structure and putative origin of the SCC mec element in S . aureus CC395.The only MRSA CC395 strain described in the literature, JS395, was subjected to WGS, and its SCC mec element was compared with those found in CoNS species and other S. aureus strains.JS395 was found to carry an unusually large…

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