July 19, 2019  |  

Exploring the roles of DNA methylation in the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

We performed whole-genome analyses of DNA methylation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to examine its possible role in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing revealed extensive methylation of adenine (N6mA) throughout the genome. These methylated bases were located in five sequence motifs, including three novel targets for type I restriction/modification enzymes. The sequence motifs targeted by putative methyltranferases were determined via SMRT sequencing of gene knockout mutants. In addition, we found that S. oneidensis MR-1 cultures grown under various culture conditions displayed different DNA methylation patterns. However, the small number of differentially methylated sites could not be directly linked to the much larger number of differentially expressed genes under these conditions, suggesting that DNA methylation is not a major regulator of gene expression in S. oneidensis MR-1. The enrichment of methylated GATC motifs in the origin of replication indicates that DNA methylation may regulate genome replication in a manner similar to that seen in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, comparative analyses suggest that many Gammaproteobacteria, including all members of the Shewanellaceae family, may also utilize DNA methylation to regulate genome replication.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome of Geobacter pickeringii G13T, a metal-reducing isolate from sedimentary kaolin deposits.

We used PacBio sequencing to assemble the genome of the pristine freshwater isolate Geobacter pickeringii G13(T) into a single 3,618,700-bp circular chromosome polished to 99.999% accuracy (quality value [QV], 50). This isolate shares several features with other Geobacter spp., including genes for degradation of aromatics and an abundance of multiheme c-type cytochromes. Copyright © 2015 Badalamenti and Bond.

July 7, 2019  |  

Genomes of Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus Z-0531Tand Geoalkalibacter subterraneus Red1T, two haloalkaliphilic metal-reducing Deltaproteobacteria.

We sequenced and annotated genomes of two haloalkaliphilic Deltaproteobacteria, Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus Z-0531(T) (DSM 17813) and Geoalkalibacter subterraneus Red1(T) (DSM 23483). During assembly, we discovered that the DSMZ stock culture of G. subterraneus was contaminated. We reisolated G. subterraneus in axenic culture and redeposited it in DSMZ and JCM. Copyright © 2015 Badalamenti et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Scarless genome editing and stable inducible expression vectors for Geobacter sulfurreducens.

Metal reduction by members of the Geobacteraceae is encoded by multiple gene clusters, and the study of extracellular electron transfer often requires biofilm development on surfaces. Genetic tools that utilize polar antibiotic cassette insertions limit mutant construction and complementation. In addition, unstable plasmids create metabolic burdens that slow growth, and the presence of antibiotics such as kanamycin can interfere with the rate and extent of Geobacter biofilm growth. We report here genetic system improvements for the model anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. A motile strain of G. sulfurreducens was constructed by precise removal of a transposon interrupting the fgrM flagellar regulator gene using SacB/sucrose counterselection, and Fe(III) citrate reduction was eliminated by deletion of the gene encoding the inner membrane cytochrome imcH. We also show that RK2-based plasmids were maintained in G. sulfurreducens for over 15 generations in the absence of antibiotic selection in contrast to unstable pBBR1 plasmids. Therefore, we engineered a series of new RK2 vectors containing native constitutive Geobacter promoters, and modified one of these promoters for VanR-dependent induction by the small aromatic carboxylic acid vanillate. Inducible plasmids fully complemented ?imcH mutants for Fe(III) reduction, Mn(IV) oxide reduction, and growth on poised electrodes. A real-time, high-throughput Fe(III) citrate reduction assay is described that can screen numerous G. sulfurreducens strain constructs simultaneously and shows the sensitivity of imcH expression by the vanillate system. These tools will enable more sophisticated genetic studies in G. sulfurreducens without polar insertion effects or need for multiple antibiotics. Copyright © 2015, Chan et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the chromate-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus strain BSB-33.

Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 is a thermophilic gram positive obligate anaerobe isolated from a hot spring in West Bengal, India. Unlike other T. thermohydrosulfuricus strains, BSB-33 is able to anaerobically reduce Fe(III) and Cr(VI) optimally at 60 °C. BSB-33 is the first Cr(VI) reducing T. thermohydrosulfuricus genome sequenced and of particular interest for bioremediation of environmental chromium contaminations. Here we discuss features of T. thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 and the unique genetic elements that may account for the peculiar metal reducing properties of this organism. The T. thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 genome comprises 2597606 bp encoding 2581 protein genes, 12 rRNA, 193 pseudogenes and has a G?+?C content of 34.20 %. Putative chromate reductases were identified by comparative analyses with other Thermoanaerobacter and chromate-reducing bacteria.

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