July 19, 2019  |  

SMRT genome assembly corrects reference errors, resolving the genetic basis of virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The genetic basis of virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been investigated through genome comparisons of virulent (H37Rv) and attenuated (H37Ra) sister strains. Such analysis, however, relies heavily on the accuracy of the sequences. While the H37Rv reference genome has had several corrections to date, that of H37Ra is unmodified since its original publication.Here, we report the assembly and finishing of the H37Ra genome from single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing. Our assembly reveals that the number of H37Ra-specific variants is less than half of what the Sanger-based H37Ra reference sequence indicates, undermining and, in some cases, invalidating the conclusions of several studies. PE_PPE family genes, which are intractable to commonly-used sequencing platforms because of their repetitive and GC-rich nature, are overrepresented in the set of genes in which all reported H37Ra-specific variants are contradicted. Further, one of the sequencing errors in H37Ra masks a true variant in common with the clinical strain CDC1551 which, when considered in the context of previous work, corresponds to a sequencing error in the H37Rv reference genome.Our results constrain the set of genomic differences possibly affecting virulence by more than half, which focuses laboratory investigation on pertinent targets and demonstrates the power of SMRT sequencing for producing high-quality reference genomes.

July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TB282 and TB284, a widespread and a unique strain, respectively, identified in a previous study of tuberculosis transmission in central Los Angeles, California, USA.

We report here the genome sequences of two Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates previously identified in central Los Angeles, CA, in the 1990s using a PacBio platform. Isolate TB282 represents a large-cluster strain that caused 27% of the tuberculosis cases, while TB284 represents a strain that caused disease in only one patient. Copyright © 2017 Zhang and Yang.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of three representative Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family strains belonging to distinct genotype clusters in Hanoi, Vietnam, during 2007 to 2009.

We present here three complete genome sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family strains isolated in Hanoi, Vietnam. These three strains were selected from major genotypic clusters (15-MIRU-VNTR) identified in a previous population-based study. We emphasize their importance and potential as reference strains in this Asian region. Copyright © 2017 Wada et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain belonging to the East African-Indian family in the Indo-Oceanic lineage, isolated in Hanoi, Vietnam.

The East African-Indian (EAI) family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an endemic group mainly observed in Southeast Asia. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an M. tuberculosis strain isolated as a member of the EAI family in Hanoi, Vietnam, a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Wada et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Phenotypic and genomic comparison of Mycobacterium aurum and surrogate model species to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: implications for drug discovery.

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents one of the major challenges facing drug discovery initiatives worldwide. The considerable rise in bacterial drug resistance in recent years has led to the need of new drugs and drug regimens. Model systems are regularly used to speed-up the drug discovery process and circumvent biosafety issues associated with manipulating M. tuberculosis. These include the use of strains such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium marinum that can be handled in biosafety level 2 facilities, making high-throughput screening feasible. However, each of these model species have their own limitations.We report and describe the first complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium aurum ATCC23366, an environmental mycobacterium that can also grow in the gut of humans and animals as part of the microbiota. This species shows a comparable resistance profile to that of M. tuberculosis for several anti-TB drugs. The aims of this study were to (i) determine the drug resistance profile of a recently proposed model species, Mycobacterium aurum, strain ATCC23366, for anti-TB drug discovery as well as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium marinum (ii) sequence and annotate the complete genome sequence of this species obtained using Pacific Bioscience technology (iii) perform comparative genomics analyses of the various surrogate strains with M. tuberculosis (iv) discuss how the choice of the surrogate model used for drug screening can affect the drug discovery process.We describe the complete genome sequence of M. aurum, a surrogate model for anti-tuberculosis drug discovery. Most of the genes already reported to be associated with drug resistance are shared between all the surrogate strains and M. tuberculosis. We consider that M. aurum might be used in high-throughput screening for tuberculosis drug discovery. We also highly recommend the use of different model species during the drug discovery screening process.

July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing-like strains revealed specific genetic variations associated with virulence and drug resistance.

Isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 2/East-Asian are considered one of the most successful strains due to their increased pathogenicity, hyper-virulence associated with drug resistance, and high transmission. Recent studies in Colombia have shown that the Beijing-like genotype is associated with multidrug-resistance and high prevalence in the southwest of the country, but the genetic basis of its success in dissemination is unknown. In contribution to this matter, we obtained the whole sequences of six genomes of clinical isolates assigned to the Beijing-like genotype. The genomes were compared with the reference genome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and 53 previously published M. tuberculosis genomes. We found that the six Beijing-like isolates belong to a modern Beijing sub-lineage and share specific genomic variants: i.e. deletion in the PPE8 gene, in Rv3806c (ubiA) responsible of high ethambutol resistance and in Rv3862c (whiB6) which is involved in granuloma formation and virulence, are some of them. Moreover, each isolated has exclusively single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related with cell wall processes and cell metabolism. We identified polymorphisms in genes related to drug resistance that could explain the drug-resistant phenotypes found in the six isolates from Colombia. We hypothesize that changes due to these genetic variations contribute to the success of these strains. Finally, we analyzed the IS6110 insertion sequences finding very low variance between them, suggesting that SNPs is the major cause of variability found in Beijing-like strains circulating in Colombia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis SB24 isolated from Sabah, Malaysia.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes millions of death every year. We have sequenced the genome of M. tuberculosis isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The isolated strain was referred as M. tuberculosis SB24. Genomic DNA of the M. tuberculosis SB24 was extracted and subjected to whole genome sequencing using PacBio platform. The draft genome size of M. tuberculosis SB24 was determined to be 4,452,489 bp with a G + C content of 65.6%. The whole genome shotgun project has been deposited in NCBI SRA under the accession number SRP076503.

July 7, 2019  |  

Pathogenesis of multi drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a determinant of future treatment success.

Multidrug-resistant (MDR)/extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a significant threat to global TB control [1]. In most cases, treatment of MDR/XDR TB is not standardized, and clinicians have adopted a variety of treatment strategies. These strategies include switching to a regimen of new drugs, increasing the dosage of the same drugs, rarely used drugs (which have widespread resistance), etc. Drug resistance is a manmade phenomenon that is driven by treatment strategy (i.e., regimen). These divergent approaches may differentially drive the evolution of bacteria. Some instances of this evolution have already occurred [2]. The community’s focus has been on drug resistance; therefore, the consequence of this divergence is usually by different mechanisms of resistance [2] and [3]. However, the full scope of the consequential microevolution frequently goes unnoticed because it also affects important factors such as fitness and virulence. In this study, we aimed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the consequences of differential TB treatment to build more accurate prognostics for future treatments.

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