July 19, 2019  |  

Mitotic intragenic recombination: A mechanism of survival for several congenital disorders of glycosylation.

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are disorders of abnormal protein glycosylation that affect multiple organ systems. Because most CDGs have been described in only a few individuals, our understanding of the associated phenotypes and the mechanisms of individual survival are limited. In the process of studying two siblings, aged 6 and 11 years, with MOGS-CDG and biallelic MOGS (mannosyl-oligosaccharide glucosidase) mutations (GenBank: NM_006302.2; c.[65C>A; 329G>A] p.[Ala22Glu; Arg110His]; c.[370C>T] p.[Gln124(*)]), we noted that their survival was much longer than the previous report of MOGS-CDG, in a child who died at 74 days of age. Upon mutation analysis, we detected multiple MOGS genotypes including wild-type alleles in their cultured fibroblast and peripheral blood DNA. Further analysis of DNA from cultured fibroblasts of six individuals with compound heterozygous mutations of PMM2 (PMM2-CDG), MPI (MPI-CDG), ALG3 (ALG3-CDG), ALG12 (ALG12-CDG), DPAGT1 (DPAGT1-CDG), and ALG1 (ALG1-CDG) also identified multiple genotypes including wild-type alleles for each. Droplet digital PCR showed a ratio of nearly 1:1 wild-type to mutant alleles for most, but not all, mutations. This suggests that mitotic recombination contributes to the survival and the variable expressivity of individuals with compound heterozygous CDGs. This also provides an explanation for prior observations of a reduced frequency of homozygous mutations and might contribute to increased levels of residual enzyme activity in cultured fibroblasts of individuals with MPI- and PMM2-CDGs. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

July 19, 2019  |  

Detecting PKD1 variants in polycystic kidney disease patients by single-molecule long-read sequencing.

A genetic diagnosis of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is challenging due to allelic heterogeneity, high GC content, and homology of the PKD1 gene with six pseudogenes. Short-read next-generation sequencing approaches, such as whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing, often fail at reliably characterizing complex regions such as PKD1. However, long-read single-molecule sequencing has been shown to be an alternative strategy that could overcome PKD1 complexities and discriminate between homologous regions of PKD1 and its pseudogenes. In this study, we present the increased power of resolution for complex regions using long-read sequencing to characterize a cohort of 19 patients with ADPKD. Our approach provided high sensitivity in identifying PKD1 pathogenic variants, diagnosing 94.7% of the patients. We show that reliable screening of ADPKD patients in a single test without interference of PKD1 homologous sequences, commonly introduced by residual amplification of PKD1 pseudogenes, by direct long-read sequencing is now possible. This strategy can be implemented in diagnostics and is highly suitable to sequence and resolve complex genomic regions that are of clinical relevance. © 2017 The Authors. Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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