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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The secondary resistome of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe lung and bloodstream infections that are difficult to treat due to multidrug resistance. We hypothesized that antimicrobial resistance can be reversed by targeting chromosomal non-essential genes that are not responsible for acquired resistance but essential for resistant bacteria under therapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. Conditional essentiality of individual genes to antimicrobial resistance was evaluated in an epidemic multidrug-resistant clone of K. pneumoniae (ST258). We constructed a high-density transposon mutant library of >430,000 unique Tn5 insertions and measured mutant depletion upon exposure to three clinically relevant antimicrobials (colistin, imipenem or ciprofloxacin) by Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing (TraDIS). Using…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Prevalence of mcr-1 in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae recovered from bloodstream infections in China: a multicentre longitudinal study.

Polymyxin antibiotics are used as last-resort therapies to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinant MCR-1 has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae in China. We did this study to investigate the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in clinical isolates from patients with bloodstream infections in China.Clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were collected from patients with bloodstream infections at 28 hospitals in China, then screened for colistin resistance by broth microdilution and for the presence of the mcr-1 gene by PCR amplification. We subjected mcr-1-positive isolates to genotyping, susceptibility testing, and clinical data analysis.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Coexistence of blaOXA-48 and truncated blaNDM-1 on different plasmids in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in China.

Objectives: To describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 on different plasmids from a Chinese hospital. Methods: The isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using Etest and PCR. The plasmids harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with specific probes. Plasmid DNA was sequenced using Pacbio RS II and annotated using RAST. Results:K. pneumoniae RJ119, carrying both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1, was resistant to almost all carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides and belonged to ST307. blaOXA-48…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Outbreak of KPC-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae caused by clonal dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 carrying an IncX3-type plasmid harboring a truncated Tn4401a.

Over a 5-month period between the end of June and the beginning of November in 2015, a KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae outbreak occurred in a general hospital in Busan, South Korea, being associated with a total of 50 clinical isolates from 47 patients. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were carried out for strain typing and whole-genome sequencing was performed to characterize the plasmids. A clonal spread of K. pneumoniae sequence type 307 (ST307) carrying a self-transferable IncX3-type plasmid harboring blaKPC-2 was responsible for the outbreak. Sporadic emergence of K. pneumoniae ST697 carrying an IncFII-type plasmid and a ST11 isolate harboring…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Population genomic analysis of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, Houston, Texas: unexpected abundance of clonal group 307.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The emergence and spread of strains resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and documented large nosocomial outbreaks are especially concerning. To develop new therapeutic strategies for K. pneumoniae, it is imperative to understand the population genomic structure of strains causing human infections. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the genomes of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae strains cultured from patients in the 2,000-bed Houston Methodist Hospital system between September 2011 and May 2015, representing a comprehensive, population-based strain sample. Strains of largely uncharacterized clonal group 307 (CG307) caused…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic epidemiology of NDM-1-encoding plasmids in Latin American clinical isolates reveals insights into the evolution of multidrug resistance

Bacteria that produce the broad-spectrum Carbapenem antibiotic New Delhi Metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) place a burden on health care systems worldwide, due to the limited treatment options for infections caused by them and the rapid global spread of this antibiotic resistance mechanism. Although it is believed that the associated resistance gene blaNDM-1 originated in Acinetobacter spp., the role of Enterobacteriaceae in its dissemination remains unclear. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing to investigate the dissemination dynamics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmids in a set of 21 clinical NDM-1-positive isolates from Colombia and Mexico (Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii) as well…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Emergence of Klebsiella variicola positive for NDM-9, a variant of New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase, in an urban river in South Korea.

To examine the presence of pathogenic bacteria carrying New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase in the environment and to characterize the genome structures of these strains.Phenotypic screening of antimicrobial susceptibility and WGS were conducted on three Klebsiella variicola strains possessing NDM-9 isolated from an urban river.Three carbapenem-resistant K. variicola isolated from Gwangju tributary were found to possess bla NDM-9 genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated resistance of these strains to aminoglycosides, carbapenems, cephems, folate pathway inhibitors, fosfomycin and penicillins, but susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, phenicols, tetracyclines and miscellaneous agents. WGS revealed that the 108 kb IncFII(Y)-like plasmids carry bla NDM-9 sandwiched between IS 15 for…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Emergence and evolution of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with both blaKPC and blaCTX-M integrated in the chromosome.

The extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)- and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae represent serious and urgent threats to public health. In a retrospective study of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae, we identified three clinical isolates, CN1, CR14, and NY9, carrying both blaCTX-M and blaKPC genes. The complete genomes of these three K. pneumoniae isolates were de novo assembled by using both short- and long-read whole-genome sequencing. In CR14 and NY9, blaCTX-M and blaKPC were carried on two different plasmids. In contrast, CN1 had one copy of blaKPC-2 and three copies of blaCTX-M-15 integrated in the chromosome, for which the blaCTX-M-15 genes were linked to an…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First report of Klebsiella oxytoca strain simultaneously producing NDM-1, IMP-4 and KPC-2 carbapenemases.

The nucleotide sequences of five plasmids from one Klebsiella oxytoca isolate were determined using the PacBio RS II system. Plasmid analysis revealed that blaNDM-1 was carried on an IncX3 plasmid. The blaIMP-4 and blaKPC-2 genes were located on IncN and IncP-6 plasmids, respectively. Comparative sequence analysis highlighted the successful spread of carbapenemase-harboring plasmids among different enterobacterial species. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, coproducing NDM-1, KPC-2, and IMP-4 carbapenemases on a K. oxytoca isolate. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Virulence and genomic feature of a virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 strain of serotype K2 harboring blaNDM-5 in China.

The objective of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in carbapenem resistance and virulence of a K2 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate 24835. The virulence of the strain was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole-genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the carbapenem resistance and virulence of K. pneumoniae 24835. Strain 24835 was highly resistant to carbapenems and belonged to ST14, exhibited hypermucoviscous and unique K2-aerobactin-kfu-rmpA positive phenotype. As the only carbapenemase gene in strain 24835, blaNDM-5 was located on a 46-kb IncX3…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the drought resistance-promoting endophyte Klebsiella sp. LTGPAF-6F.

Bacterial endophytes with capacity to promote plant growth and improve plant tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses have importance in agricultural practice and phytoremediation. A plant growth-promoting endophyte named Klebsiella sp. LTGPAF-6F, which was isolated from the roots of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia in north-west China, exhibits the ability to enhance the growth of wheat under drought stress. The complete genome sequence of this strain consists of one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. From the genome, we identified genes related to the plant growth promotion and stress tolerance, such as nitrogen fixation, production of indole-3-acetic acid, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Metabolic diversity of the emerging pathogenic lineages of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Multidrug resistant and hypervirulent clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae are emerging pathogens. To understand the association between genotypic and phenotypic diversity in this process, we combined genomic, phylogenomic and phenotypic analysis of a diverse set of K. pneumoniae and closely related species. These species were able to use an unusually large panel of metabolic substrates for growth, many of which were shared between all strains. We analysed the substrates used by only a fraction of the strains, identified some of their genetic basis, and found that many could not be explained by the phylogeny of the strains. Puzzlingly, few traits were…

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