July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome sequences of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates exhibiting decreased meropenem susceptibility.

We report here paired isogenic Burkholderia pseudomallei genomes obtained from three patients receiving intravenous meropenem for melioidosis treatment, with post-meropenem isolates developing decreased susceptibility. Two genomes were finished, and four were drafted to improved high-quality standard. These genomes will be used to identify meropenem resistance mechanisms in B. pseudomallei. Copyright © 2017 Price et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 chromosome and plasmids, generated by long-read sequencing.

Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 was sequenced using a long-read method to generate a complete genome sequence, including some plasmid sequences. Some differences from the previously generated short-read sequence of this nonpathogenic and non-biofilm-forming strain were noted. The assembly size was 2,570,371 bp with a total G+C% content of 32.08%. Copyright © 2017 MacLea and Trachtenberg.

July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic variation and evolution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus ST36 over the course of a transcontinental epidemic expansion.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related infections with illnesses undergoing a geographic expansion. In this process of expansion, the most fundamental change has been the transition from infections caused by local strains to the surge of pandemic clonal types. Pandemic clone sequence type 3 (ST3) was the only example of transcontinental spreading until 2012, when ST36 was detected outside the region where it is endemic in the U.S. Pacific Northwest causing infections along the U.S. northeast coast and Spain. Here, we used genome-wide analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the V. parahaemolyticus ST36 clone over the course of its geographic expansion during the previous 25 years. The origin of this lineage was estimated to be in ~1985. By 1995, a new variant emerged in the region and quickly replaced the old clone, which has not been detected since 2000. The new Pacific Northwest (PNW) lineage was responsible for the first cases associated with this clone outside the Pacific Northwest region. After several introductions into the northeast coast, the new PNW clone differentiated into a highly dynamic group that continues to cause illness on the northeast coast of the United States. Surprisingly, the strains detected in Europe in 2012 diverged from this ancestral group around 2000 and have conserved genetic features present only in the old PNW lineage. Recombination was identified as the major driver of diversification, with some preliminary observations suggesting a trend toward a more specialized lifestyle, which may represent a critical element in the expansion of epidemics under scenarios of coastal warming.IMPORTANCEVibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae represent the only two instances of pandemic expansions of human pathogens originating in the marine environment. However, while the current pandemic of V. cholerae emerged more than 50 years ago, the global expansion of V. parahaemolyticus is a recent phenomenon. These modern expansions provide an exceptional opportunity to study the evolutionary process of these pathogens at first hand and gain an understanding of the mechanisms shaping the epidemic dynamics of these diseases, in particular, the emergence, dispersal, and successful introduction in new regions facilitating global spreading of infections. In this study, we used genomic analysis to examine the evolutionary divergence that has occurred over the course of the most recent transcontinental expansion of a pathogenic Vibrio, the spreading of the V. parahaemolyticus sequence type 36 clone from the region where it is endemic on the Pacific coast of North America to the east coast of the United States and finally to the west coast of Europe.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of Clostridium perfringens Del1 strain isolated from chickens affected by necrotic enteritis.

Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations. The recent omics studies have indicated that bacterial virulence is typically linked to highly efficient conjugative transfer of toxins, or plasmids carrying antibiotic-resistance traits. Currently, there is limited information on understanding of host-pathogen interaction in NE caused by virulent strains of C. perfringens. Elucidating such pathogenesis has practical impacts on fighting infectious diseases through adopting strategies of prophylactic or therapeutic interventions. In this report, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of C. perfringens Del1 strain using the hybrid of PacBio and Illumina sequencing technologies.Sequence analysis indicated that Del1 strain comprised a single circular chromosome with a complete 3,559,163 bp and 4 plasmids: pDel1_1 (82,596 bp), pDel1_2 (69,827 bp), pDel1_3 (49,582 bp), and pDel1_4 (49,728 bp). The genome had 3361 predicted coding DNA sequences, harbored numerous genes for pathogenesis and virulence factors, including 6 for antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance, and 3 phage-encoded genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Del1 strain had similar genome and plasmid sequences to the CP4 strain.Complete chromosomal and plasmid sequences of Del1 strain are presented in this report. Since Del1 was isolated from a field disease outbreak, this strain is a good source to identify virulent genes that cause many damaging effects of Clostridial infections in chicken gut. Genome sequencing of the chicken pathogenic isolates from commercial farms provides valuable insights into the molecular pathogenesis of C. perfringens as a gastrointestinal pathogen in food animals. The detailed information on gene sequencing of this important field strain will benefit the development of novel vaccines specific for C. perfringens-induced NE in chickens.

July 7, 2019  |  

Deciphering the virulence factors of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium colombiense.

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) contains clinically important nontuberculous mycobacteria worldwide and is the second largest medical complex in the Mycobacterium genus after the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. MAC comprises several species that are closely phylogenetically related but diverse regarding their host preference, course of disease, virulence and immune response. In this study we provided immunologic and virulence-related insights into the M. colombiense genome as a model of an opportunistic pathogen in the MAC. By using bioinformatic tools we found that M. colombiense has deletions in the genes involved in p-HBA/PDIM/PGL, PLC, SL-1 and HspX production, and loss of the ESX-1 locus. This information not only sheds light on our understanding the virulence mechanisms used by opportunistic MAC pathogens but also has great potential for the designing of species-specific diagnostic tools.

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