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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii strain B8342, a motility-positive clinical isolate.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging Gram-negative pathogen responsible for health care-associated infections. In this study, we determined the genome of a motility-positive clinical strain, B8342, isolated from a hospital in southern India. The B8342 genome, which is 3.94 Mbp, was generated by de novo assembly of PacBio long-read sequencing data. Copyright © 2015 Vijaykumar et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Insights on virulence from the complete genome of Staphylococcus capitis.

Staphylococcus capitis is an opportunistic pathogen of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). Functional genomic studies of S. capitis have thus far been limited by a lack of available complete genome sequences. Here, we determined the closed S. capitis genome and methylome using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing. The strain, AYP1020, harbors a single circular chromosome of 2.44 Mb encoding 2304 predicted proteins, which is the smallest of all complete staphylococcal genomes sequenced to date. AYP1020 harbors two large mobile genetic elements; a plasmid designated pAYP1020 (59.6 Kb) and a prophage, FAYP1020 (48.5 Kb). Methylome analysis identified significant adenine methylation…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Bordetella pertussis evolution in the (functional) genomics era.

The incidence of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis in many developed countries has risen dramatically in recent years. This has been linked to the use of an acellular pertussis vaccine. In addition, it is thought that B. pertussis is adapting under acellular vaccine mediated immune selection pressure, towards vaccine escape. Genomics-based approaches have revolutionized the ability to resolve the fine structure of the global B. pertussis population and its evolution during the era of vaccination. Here, we discuss the current picture of B. pertussis evolution and diversity in the light of the current resurgence, highlight import questions raised by…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of 11 Bordetella pertussis strains representing the pandemic ptxP3 lineage.

Pathogen adaptation has contributed to the resurgence of pertussis. To facilitate our understanding of this adaptation we report here 11 completely closed and annotated Bordetella pertussis genomes representing the pandemic ptxP3 lineage. Our analyses included six strains which do not produce the vaccine components pertactin and/or filamentous hemagglutinin. Copyright © 2015 Bart et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

vanG element insertions within a conserved chromosomal site conferring vancomycin resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus anginosus.

Three vancomycin-resistant streptococcal strains carrying vanG elements (two invasive Streptococcus agalactiae isolates [GBS-NY and GBS-NM, both serotype II and multilocus sequence type 22] and one Streptococcus anginosus [Sa]) were examined. The 45,585-bp elements found within Sa and GBS-NY were nearly identical (together designated vanG-1) and shared near-identity over an ~15-kb overlap with a previously described vanG element from Enterococcus faecalis. Unexpectedly, vanG-1 shared much less homology with the 49,321-bp vanG-2 element from GBS-NM, with widely different levels (50% to 99%) of sequence identity shared among 44 related open reading frames. Immediately adjacent to both vanG-1 and vanG-2 were 44,670-bp and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Pilon: an integrated tool for comprehensive microbial variant detection and genome assembly improvement.

Advances in modern sequencing technologies allow us to generate sufficient data to analyze hundreds of bacterial genomes from a single machine in a single day. This potential for sequencing massive numbers of genomes calls for fully automated methods to produce high-quality assemblies and variant calls. We introduce Pilon, a fully automated, all-in-one tool for correcting draft assemblies and calling sequence variants of multiple sizes, including very large insertions and deletions. Pilon works with many types of sequence data, but is particularly strong when supplied with paired end data from two Illumina libraries with small e.g., 180 bp and large e.g.,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome determination and analysis of Acholeplasma oculi strain 19L, highlighting the loss of basic genetic features in the Acholeplasmataceae.

BACKGROUND: Acholeplasma oculi belongs to the Acholeplasmataceae family, comprising the genera Acholeplasma and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’. Acholeplasmas are ubiquitous saprophytic bacteria. Several isolates are derived from plants or animals, whereas phytoplasmas are characterised as intracellular parasitic pathogens of plant phloem and depend on insect vectors for their spread. The complete genome sequences for eight strains of this family have been resolved so far, all of which were determined depending on clone-based sequencing. RESULTS:The A. oculi strain 19L chromosome was sequenced using two independent approaches. The first approach comprised sequencing by synthesis (Illumina) in combination with Sanger sequencing, while single molecule real…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Inconsistency of phenotypic and genomic characteristics of Campylobacter fetus subspecies requires reevaluation of current diagnostics.

Classifications of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis were first described in 1959 and were based on the source of isolation (intestinal versus genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in the genital tract of cows. Two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and H2S production) were described to differentiate the subspecies. Multiple molecular assays have been applied to differentiate the C. fetus subspecies, but none of these tests is consistent with the phenotypic identification methods. In this study, we defined the core genome and accessory genes of C. fetus, which are based on the closed genomes of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

An in vitro deletion in ribE encoding lumazine synthase contributes to nitrofurantoin resistance in Escherichia coli.

Nitrofurantoin has been used for decades for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), but clinically significant resistance in Escherichia coli is uncommon. Nitrofurantoin concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract tend to be low, which might facilitate selection of nitrofurantoin-resistant (NIT-R) strains in the gut flora. We subjected two nitrofurantoin-susceptible intestinal E. coli strains (ST540-p and ST2747-p) to increasing nitrofurantoin concentrations under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Whole-genome sequencing was performed for both susceptible isolates and selected mutants that exhibited the highest nitrofurantoin resistance levels aerobically (ST540-a and ST2747-a) and anaerobically (ST540-an and ST2747-an). ST540-a/ST540-an and ST2747-a (aerobic MICs of >64 µg/ml)…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Assessment of insertion sequence mobilization as an adaptive response to oxidative stress in Acinetobacter baumannii using IS-Seq.

Insertion sequence (IS) elements are found throughout bacterial genomes and contribute to genome variation by interrupting genes or altering gene expression. Few of the more than thirty IS elements described in Acinetobacter baumannii have been characterized for transposition activity or expression effects. A targeted sequencing method, IS-seq, was developed to efficiently map the locations of new insertion events in A. baumannii genomes and was used to identify novel IS sites following growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress. Serial subculture in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of hydrogen peroxide led to rapid selection of cells carrying…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. strain NCu2D-2 isolated from a mouse.

Whole-genome sequencing of Acinetobacter sp. strain NCu2D-2, isolated from the trachea of a mouse, revealed the presence of a plasmid of 309,964 bp with little overall similarity to known plasmids and enriched in insertion sequences (ISs) closely related to IS elements known from the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Copyright © 2017 Blaschke and Wilharm.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Analysis of serial isolates of mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli reveals a highly active ISApl1 transposon.

The emergence of a transferable colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) is of global concern. The insertion sequence ISApl1 is a key component in the mobilization of this gene, but its role remains poorly understood. Six Escherichia coli isolates were cultured from the same patient over the course of 1 month in Germany and the United States after a brief hospitalization in Bahrain for an unconnected illness. Four carried mcr-1 as determined by real-time PCR, but two were negative. Two additional mcr-1-negative E. coli isolates were collected during follow-up surveillance 9 months later. All isolates were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). WGS…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Transcriptome Remodeling of Acinetobacter baumannii during Infection and Treatment.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly common multidrug-resistant pathogen in health care settings. Although the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance mechanisms has been extensively studied, much less is known about how genetic variation contributes to other aspects of successful infections. Genetic changes that occur during host infection and treatment have the potential to remodel gene expression patterns related to resistance and pathogenesis. Longitudinal sets of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates from eight patients were analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify differentially expressed genes and link them to genetic changes contributing to transcriptional variation at both within-patient and population levels. The number of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome stability in engineered strains of the extremely thermophilic lignocellulose-degrading bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii.

Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is the most thermophilic cellulose degrader known and is of great interest because of its ability to degrade nonpretreated plant biomass. For biotechnological applications, an efficient genetic system is required to engineer it to convert plant biomass into desired products. To date, two different genetically tractable lineages of C. bescii strains have been generated. The first (JWCB005) is based on a random deletion within the pyrimidine biosynthesis genes pyrFA, and the second (MACB1018) is based on the targeted deletion of pyrE, making use of a kanamycin resistance marker. Importantly, an active insertion element, ISCbe4, was discovered in C.…

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