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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomics and host specialization of honey bee and bumble bee gut symbionts.

Gilliamella apicola and Snodgrassella alvi are dominant members of the honey bee (Apis spp.) and bumble bee (Bombus spp.) gut microbiota. We generated complete genomes of the type strains G. apicola wkB1(T) and S. alvi wkB2(T) (isolated from Apis), as well as draft genomes for four other strains from Bombus. G. apicola and S. alvi were found to occupy very different metabolic niches: The former is a saccharolytic fermenter, whereas the latter is an oxidizer of carboxylic acids. Together, they may form a syntrophic network for partitioning of metabolic resources. Both species possessed numerous genes [type 6 secretion systems, repeats…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Gut symbionts from distinct hosts exhibit genotoxic activity via divergent colibactin biosynthetic pathways.

Secondary metabolites produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways are chemical mediators of microbial interactions in diverse environments. However, little is known about their distribution, evolution, and functional roles in bacterial symbionts associated with animals. A prominent example is “colibactin”, a largely unknown family of secondary metabolites produced by Escherichia coli via a hybrid NRPS-PKS biosynthetic pathway, inflicting DNA damage upon eukaryotic cells and contributing to colorectal cancer and tumor formation in the mammalian gut. Thus far, homologs of this pathway have only been found in closely related Enterobacteriaceae, while a divergent variant of this gene…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequencing and analysis of the first complete genome of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, an Apis mellifera gut isolate

Background. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most important pollinator in agriculture worldwide. However, the number of honey bees has fallen significantly since 2006, becoming a huge ecological problem nowadays. The principal cause is CCD, or Colony Collapse Disorder, characterized by the seemingly spontaneous abandonment of hives by their workers. One of the characteristics of CCD in honey bees is the alteration of the bacterial communities in their gastrointestinal tract, mainly due to the decrease of Firmicutes populations, such as the Lactobacilli. At this time, the causes of these alterations remain unknown. We recently isolated a strain of Lactobacillus…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Melissococcus plutonius DAT561, a strain that shows an unusual growth profile, obtained by PacBio sequencing.

Melissococcus plutonius is the causative agent of European foulbrood, and its isolates were believed to be remarkably genetically homogeneous. However, recent epidemiological and pathogenic studies have shown this pathogen to be more heterogeneous than expected. Herein, we present the whole-genome sequence of M. plutonius DAT561, a representative atypical strain. Copyright © 2018 Okumura et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

New reference genome sequences for 17 bacterial strains of the honey bee gut microbiota.

We sequenced the genomes of 17 strains isolated from the gut of honey bees, including strains representing the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Gilliamella, Snodgrassella, Frischella, and Commensalibacter. These genome sequences represent an important step forward in the development of a comprehensive reference database to aid future analysis of this emerging gut microbiota model.

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