July 19, 2019  |  

The complex methylome of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

The genome of Helicobacter pylori is remarkable for its large number of restriction-modification (R-M) systems, and strain-specific diversity in R-M systems has been suggested to limit natural transformation, the major driving force of genetic diversification in H. pylori. We have determined the comprehensive methylomes of two H. pylori strains at single base resolution, using Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT®) sequencing. For strains 26695 and J99-R3, 17 and 22 methylated sequence motifs were identified, respectively. For most motifs, almost all sites occurring in the genome were detected as methylated. Twelve novel methylation patterns corresponding to nine recognition sequences were detected (26695, 3; J99-R3, 6). Functional inactivation, correction of frameshifts as well as cloning and expression of candidate methyltransferases (MTases) permitted not only the functional characterization of multiple, yet undescribed, MTases, but also revealed novel features of both Type I and Type II R-M systems, including frameshift-mediated changes of sequence specificity and the interaction of one MTase with two alternative specificity subunits resulting in different methylation patterns. The methylomes of these well-characterized H. pylori strains will provide a valuable resource for future studies investigating the role of H. pylori R-M systems in limiting transformation as well as in gene regulation and host interaction.


July 19, 2019  |  

The complete methylome of Helicobacter pylori UM032.

The genome of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori encodes a large number of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), some of which are shared among many strains, and others of which are unique to a given strain. The MTases have potential roles in the survival of the bacterium. In this study, we sequenced a Malaysian H. pylori clinical strain, designated UM032, by using a combination of PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) and Illumina MiSeq next generation sequencing platforms, and used the SMRT data to characterize the set of methylated bases (the methylome).The N4-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine modifications detected at single-base resolution using SMRT technology revealed 17 methylated sequence motifs corresponding to one Type I and 16 Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems. Previously unassigned methylation motifs were now assigned to their respective MTases-coding genes. Furthermore, one gene that appears to be inactive in the H. pylori UM032 genome during normal growth was characterized by cloning.Consistent with previously-studied H. pylori strains, we show that strain UM032 contains a relatively large number of R-M systems, including some MTase activities with novel specificities. Additional studies are underway to further elucidating the biological significance of the R-M systems in the physiology and pathogenesis of H. pylori.


July 19, 2019  |  

Genome and methylome variation in Helicobacter pylori with a cag pathogenicity island during early stages of human infection.

Helicobacter pylori is remarkable for its genetic variation. Yet little isknown about its genetic changes during early stages of human infection, as the bacteria adapt to their new environment. We analyzed genome and methylome variations in a fully virulent strain of H pylori strain during experimental infection.We performed a randomized Phase 1 and 2, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, study of 12 healthy, H pylori-negative adults in Germany from October 2008 through March 2010. The volunteers were given a prophylactic vaccine candidate (n=7) or placebo (n=5) and then challenged with H pylori strain BCM-300. Biopsy samples were collected and H pylori were isolated. Genomes of the challenge strain and 12 re-isolates, obtained 12 weeks after (or in 1 case, 62 weeks after) infection were sequenced by single-molecule, real-time technology, which, in parallel, permitted determination of genome-wide methylation patterns for all strains. Functional effects of genetic changes observed in H pylori strains during human infection were assessed by measuring release of interleukin 8 from AGS cells (to detect cag PAI function), neutral red uptake (to detect vacuolating cytotoxin activity), and adhesion assays.The observed mutation rate was in agreement with rates previously determined from patients with chronic H pylori infections, without evidence of a mutation burst. A loss; of cag PAI function was observed in 3 re-isolates. In addition, 3 re-isolates from the vaccine; group acquired mutations in the vacuolating cytotoxin gene vacA, resulting in loss of; vacuolization activity from gastric epithelial cells. We observed inter-strain variation in; methylomes due to phase variation in genes encoding methyltransferases.We analyzed adaptation of a fully virulent strain of H pylori to 12 differentvolunteers to obtain a robust estimate of the frequency of genetic and epigenetic changes inthe absence of inter-strain recombination. Our findings indicate that the large amount of; genetic variation in H pylori poses a challenge to vaccine development. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00736476. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Biochemical characterization of a Naegleria TET-like oxygenase and its application in single molecule sequencing of 5-methylcytosine.

Modified DNA bases in mammalian genomes, such as 5-methylcytosine ((5m)C) and its oxidized forms, are implicated in important epigenetic regulation processes. In human or mouse, successive enzymatic conversion of (5m)C to its oxidized forms is carried out by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins. Previously we reported the structure of a TET-like (5m)C oxygenase (NgTET1) from Naegleria gruberi, a single-celled protist evolutionarily distant from vertebrates. Here we show that NgTET1 is a 5-methylpyrimidine oxygenase, with activity on both (5m)C (major activity) and thymidine (T) (minor activity) in all DNA forms tested, and provide unprecedented evidence for the formation of 5-formyluridine ((5f)U) and 5-carboxyuridine ((5ca)U) in vitro. Mutagenesis studies reveal a delicate balance between choice of (5m)C or T as the preferred substrate. Furthermore, our results suggest substrate preference by NgTET1 to (5m)CpG and TpG dinucleotide sites in DNA. Intriguingly, NgTET1 displays higher T-oxidation activity in vitro than mammalian TET1, supporting a closer evolutionary relationship between NgTET1 and the base J-binding proteins from trypanosomes. Finally, we demonstrate that NgTET1 can be readily used as a tool in (5m)C sequencing technologies such as single molecule, real-time sequencing to map (5m)C in bacterial genomes at base resolution.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 12200BP, a probiotic strain promoting the intestinal health.

Bifidobacteria constitute a major group of beneficial intestinal bacteria, and are therefore often used to formulate probiotic products in combination with lactic acid bacteria. The availability of bifidobacterial genome sequences has broadened our knowledge on health-promoting factors as well as their safety assessments. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum CBT BG7 that consists of a 2.45-Mb chromosome and a plasmid. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.


July 7, 2019  |  

Methylome diversification through changes in DNA methyltransferase sequence specificity.

Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation have large effects on gene expression and genome maintenance. Helicobacter pylori, a human gastric pathogen, has a large number of DNA methyltransferase genes, with different strains having unique repertoires. Previous genome comparisons suggested that these methyltransferases often change DNA sequence specificity through domain movement–the movement between and within genes of coding sequences of target recognition domains. Using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology, which detects N6-methyladenines and N4-methylcytosines with single-base resolution, we studied methylated DNA sites throughout the H. pylori genome for several closely related strains. Overall, the methylome was highly variable among closely related strains. Hypermethylated regions were found, for example, in rpoB gene for RNA polymerase. We identified DNA sequence motifs for methylation and then assigned each of them to a specific homology group of the target recognition domains in the specificity-determining genes for Type I and other restriction-modification systems. These results supported proposed mechanisms for sequence-specificity changes in DNA methyltransferases. Knocking out one of the Type I specificity genes led to transcriptome changes, which suggested its role in gene expression. These results are consistent with the concept of evolution driven by DNA methylation, in which changes in the methylome lead to changes in the transcriptome and potentially to changes in phenotype, providing targets for natural or artificial selection.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of eight Helicobacter pylori strains with different virulence factor genotypes and methylation profiles, isolated from patients with diverse gastrointestinal diseases on Okinawa Island, Japan, determined using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

We report the complete genome sequences of eight Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Okinawa, Japan. Whole-genome sequencing and DNA methylation detection were performed using the PacBio platform. De novo assembly determined a single, complete contig for each strain. Furthermore, methylation analysis identified virulence factor genotype-dependent motifs.


July 7, 2019  |  

Multiple genome sequences of Helicobacter pylori strains of diverse disease and antibiotic resistance backgrounds from Malaysia.

Helicobacter pylori causes human gastroduodenal diseases, including chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. It is also a major microbial risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Twenty-one strains with different ethnicity, disease, and antimicrobial susceptibility backgrounds were sequenced by use of Illumina HiSeq and PacBio RS platforms.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparing the genomes of Helicobacter pylori clinical strain UM032 and mice-adapted derivatives.

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that persistently infects the human stomach inducing chronic inflammation. The exact mechanisms of pathogenesis are still not completely understood. Although not a natural host for H. pylori, mouse infection models play an important role in establishing the immunology and pathogenicity of H. pylori. In this study, for the first time, the genome sequences of clinical H. pylori strain UM032 and mice-adapted derivatives, 298 and 299, were sequenced using the PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) technology.Here, we described the single contig which was achieved for UM032 (1,599,441 bp), 298 (1,604,216 bp) and 299 (1,601,149 bp). Preliminary analysis suggested that methylation of H. pylori genome through its restriction modification system may be determinative of its host specificity and adaptation.Availability of these genomic sequences will aid in enhancing our current level of understanding the host specificity of H. pylori.


July 7, 2019  |  

Quantum changes in Helicobacter pylori gene expression accompany host-adaptation.

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful gastric pathogen. High genomic plasticity allows its adaptation to changing host environments. Complete genomes of H. pylori clinical isolate UM032 and its mice-adapted serial derivatives 298 and 299, generated using both PacBio RS and Illumina MiSeq sequencing technologies, were compared to identify novel elements responsible for host-adaptation. The acquisition of a jhp0562-like allele, which encodes for a galactosyltransferase, was identified in the mice-adapted strains. Our analysis implies a new ß-1,4-galactosyltransferase role for this enzyme, essential for Ley antigen expression. Intragenomic recombination between babA and babB genes was also observed. Further, we expanded on the list of candidate genes whose expression patterns have been mediated by upstream homopolymer-length alterations to facilitate host adaption. Importantly, greater than four-fold reduction of mRNA levels was demonstrated in five genes. Among the down-regulated genes, three encode for outer membrane proteins, including BabA, BabB and HopD. As expected, a substantial reduction in BabA protein abundance was detected in mice-adapted strains 298 and 299 via Western analysis. Our results suggest that the expression of Ley antigen and reduced outer membrane protein expressions may facilitate H. pylori colonisation of mouse gastric epithelium.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.


July 7, 2019  |  

Fallacy of the unique genome: sequence diversity within single Helicobacter pylori strains.

Many bacterial genomes are highly variable but nonetheless are typically published as a single assembled genome. Experiments tracking bacterial genome evolution have not looked at the variation present at a given point in time. Here, we analyzed the mouse-passaged Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 and its parent PMSS1 to assess intra- and intergenomic variability. Using high sequence coverage depth and experimental validation, we detected extensive genome plasticity within these H. pylori isolates, including movement of the transposable element IS607, large and small inversions, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms, and variation in cagA copy number. The cagA gene was found as 1 to 4 tandem copies located off the cag island in both SS1 and PMSS1; this copy number variation correlated with protein expression. To gain insight into the changes that occurred during mouse adaptation, we also compared SS1 and PMSS1 and observed 46 differences that were distinct from the within-genome variation. The most substantial was an insertion in cagY, which encodes a protein required for a type IV secretion system function. We detected modifications in genes coding for two proteins known to affect mouse colonization, the HpaA neuraminyllactose-binding protein and the FutB a-1,3 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fucosyltransferase, as well as genes predicted to modulate diverse properties. In sum, our work suggests that data from consensus genome assemblies from single colonies may be misleading by failing to represent the variability present. Furthermore, we show that high-depth genomic sequencing data of a population can be analyzed to gain insight into the normal variation within bacterial strains.IMPORTANCE Although it is well known that many bacterial genomes are highly variable, it is nonetheless traditional to refer to, analyze, and publish “the genome” of a bacterial strain. Variability is usually reduced (“only sequence from a single colony”), ignored (“just publish the consensus”), or placed in the “too-hard” basket (“analysis of raw read data is more robust”). Now that whole-genome sequences are regularly used to assess virulence and track outbreaks, a better understanding of the baseline genomic variation present within single strains is needed. Here, we describe the variability seen in typical working stocks and colonies of pathogen Helicobacter pylori model strains SS1 and PMSS1 as revealed by use of high-coverage mate pair next-generation sequencing (NGS) and confirmed by traditional laboratory techniques. This work demonstrates that reliance on a consensus assembly as “the genome” of a bacterial strain may be misleading. Copyright © 2017 Draper et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Methylomic and phenotypic analysis of the ModH5 phasevarion of Helicobacter pylori.

The Helicobacter pylori phase variable gene modH, typified by gene HP1522 in strain 26695, encodes a N6-adenosine type III DNA methyltransferase. Our previous studies identified multiple strain-specific modH variants (modH1 – modH19) and showed that phase variation of modH5 in H. pylori P12 influenced expression of motility-associated genes and outer membrane protein gene hopG. However, the ModH5 DNA recognition motif and the mechanism by which ModH5 controls gene expression were unknown. Here, using comparative single molecule real-time sequencing, we identify the DNA site methylated by ModH5 as 5′-Gm6ACC-3′. This motif is vastly underrepresented in H. pylori genomes, but overrepresented in a number of virulence genes, including motility-associated genes, and outer membrane protein genes. Motility and the number of flagella of H. pylori P12 wild-type were significantly higher than that of isogenic modH5 OFF or ?modH5 mutants, indicating that phase variable switching of modH5 expression plays a role in regulating H. pylori motility phenotypes. Using the flagellin A (flaA) gene as a model, we show that ModH5 modulates flaA promoter activity in a GACC methylation-dependent manner. These findings provide novel insights into the role of ModH5 in gene regulation and how it mediates epigenetic regulation of H. pylori motility.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Helicobacter pylori strain 7C isolated from a Mexican patient with chronic gastritis.

Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis is a risk factor for developing gastric pathologies. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant H. pylori strain isolated from a chronic gastritis patient in Mexico City, Mexico. Nonvirulent VacA and cag-pathogenicity island (PAI) genotypes were found, but the presence of a potential mobilizable plasmid carrying an IS605 element is of outstanding interest. Copyright © 2016 Mucito-Varela et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Recent “omics” advances in Helicobacter pylori.

The development of high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies is changing the face of microbiology, facilitating the comparison of large numbers of genomes from different lineages of a same organism. Our aim was to review the main advances on Helicobacter pylori “omics” and to understand how this is improving our knowledge of the biology, diversity and pathogenesis of H. pylori. Since the first H. pylori isolate was sequenced in 1997, 510 genomes have been deposited in the NCBI archive, providing a basis for improved understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important pathogen. This review focuses on works published between April 2015 and March 2016. Helicobacter “omics” is already making an impact and is a growing research field. Ultimately these advances will be translated into a routine clinical laboratory setting in order to improve public health.© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


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