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Friday, July 19, 2019

The complex methylome of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

The genome of Helicobacter pylori is remarkable for its large number of restriction-modification (R-M) systems, and strain-specific diversity in R-M systems has been suggested to limit natural transformation, the major driving force of genetic diversification in H. pylori. We have determined the comprehensive methylomes of two H. pylori strains at single base resolution, using Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT®) sequencing. For strains 26695 and J99-R3, 17 and 22 methylated sequence motifs were identified, respectively. For most motifs, almost all sites occurring in the genome were detected as methylated. Twelve novel methylation patterns corresponding to nine recognition sequences were detected (26695, 3;…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

The complete methylome of Helicobacter pylori UM032.

The genome of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori encodes a large number of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), some of which are shared among many strains, and others of which are unique to a given strain. The MTases have potential roles in the survival of the bacterium. In this study, we sequenced a Malaysian H. pylori clinical strain, designated UM032, by using a combination of PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) and Illumina MiSeq next generation sequencing platforms, and used the SMRT data to characterize the set of methylated bases (the methylome).The N4-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine modifications detected at single-base resolution using SMRT…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Genome and methylome variation in Helicobacter pylori with a cag pathogenicity island during early stages of human infection.

Helicobacter pylori is remarkable for its genetic variation. Yet little isknown about its genetic changes during early stages of human infection, as the bacteria adapt to their new environment. We analyzed genome and methylome variations in a fully virulent strain of H pylori strain during experimental infection.We performed a randomized Phase 1 and 2, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, study of 12 healthy, H pylori-negative adults in Germany from October 2008 through March 2010. The volunteers were given a prophylactic vaccine candidate (n=7) or placebo (n=5) and then challenged with H pylori strain BCM-300. Biopsy samples were collected and H pylori were isolated.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Biochemical characterization of a Naegleria TET-like oxygenase and its application in single molecule sequencing of 5-methylcytosine.

Modified DNA bases in mammalian genomes, such as 5-methylcytosine ((5m)C) and its oxidized forms, are implicated in important epigenetic regulation processes. In human or mouse, successive enzymatic conversion of (5m)C to its oxidized forms is carried out by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins. Previously we reported the structure of a TET-like (5m)C oxygenase (NgTET1) from Naegleria gruberi, a single-celled protist evolutionarily distant from vertebrates. Here we show that NgTET1 is a 5-methylpyrimidine oxygenase, with activity on both (5m)C (major activity) and thymidine (T) (minor activity) in all DNA forms tested, and provide unprecedented evidence for the formation of 5-formyluridine ((5f)U)…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 12200BP, a probiotic strain promoting the intestinal health.

Bifidobacteria constitute a major group of beneficial intestinal bacteria, and are therefore often used to formulate probiotic products in combination with lactic acid bacteria. The availability of bifidobacterial genome sequences has broadened our knowledge on health-promoting factors as well as their safety assessments. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum CBT BG7 that consists of a 2.45-Mb chromosome and a plasmid. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Methylome diversification through changes in DNA methyltransferase sequence specificity.

Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation have large effects on gene expression and genome maintenance. Helicobacter pylori, a human gastric pathogen, has a large number of DNA methyltransferase genes, with different strains having unique repertoires. Previous genome comparisons suggested that these methyltransferases often change DNA sequence specificity through domain movement–the movement between and within genes of coding sequences of target recognition domains. Using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology, which detects N6-methyladenines and N4-methylcytosines with single-base resolution, we studied methylated DNA sites throughout the H. pylori genome for several closely related strains. Overall, the methylome was highly variable among closely related strains.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of eight Helicobacter pylori strains with different virulence factor genotypes and methylation profiles, isolated from patients with diverse gastrointestinal diseases on Okinawa Island, Japan, determined using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

We report the complete genome sequences of eight Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Okinawa, Japan. Whole-genome sequencing and DNA methylation detection were performed using the PacBio platform. De novo assembly determined a single, complete contig for each strain. Furthermore, methylation analysis identified virulence factor genotype-dependent motifs.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Multiple genome sequences of Helicobacter pylori strains of diverse disease and antibiotic resistance backgrounds from Malaysia.

Helicobacter pylori causes human gastroduodenal diseases, including chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. It is also a major microbial risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Twenty-one strains with different ethnicity, disease, and antimicrobial susceptibility backgrounds were sequenced by use of Illumina HiSeq and PacBio RS platforms.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparing the genomes of Helicobacter pylori clinical strain UM032 and mice-adapted derivatives.

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that persistently infects the human stomach inducing chronic inflammation. The exact mechanisms of pathogenesis are still not completely understood. Although not a natural host for H. pylori, mouse infection models play an important role in establishing the immunology and pathogenicity of H. pylori. In this study, for the first time, the genome sequences of clinical H. pylori strain UM032 and mice-adapted derivatives, 298 and 299, were sequenced using the PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) technology.Here, we described the single contig which was achieved for UM032 (1,599,441 bp), 298 (1,604,216 bp) and 299 (1,601,149 bp). Preliminary analysis suggested…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Quantum changes in Helicobacter pylori gene expression accompany host-adaptation.

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful gastric pathogen. High genomic plasticity allows its adaptation to changing host environments. Complete genomes of H. pylori clinical isolate UM032 and its mice-adapted serial derivatives 298 and 299, generated using both PacBio RS and Illumina MiSeq sequencing technologies, were compared to identify novel elements responsible for host-adaptation. The acquisition of a jhp0562-like allele, which encodes for a galactosyltransferase, was identified in the mice-adapted strains. Our analysis implies a new ß-1,4-galactosyltransferase role for this enzyme, essential for Ley antigen expression. Intragenomic recombination between babA and babB genes was also observed. Further, we expanded on the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Fallacy of the unique genome: sequence diversity within single Helicobacter pylori strains.

Many bacterial genomes are highly variable but nonetheless are typically published as a single assembled genome. Experiments tracking bacterial genome evolution have not looked at the variation present at a given point in time. Here, we analyzed the mouse-passaged Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 and its parent PMSS1 to assess intra- and intergenomic variability. Using high sequence coverage depth and experimental validation, we detected extensive genome plasticity within these H. pylori isolates, including movement of the transposable element IS607, large and small inversions, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms, and variation in cagA copy number. The cagA gene was found as 1 to 4…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Methylomic and phenotypic analysis of the ModH5 phasevarion of Helicobacter pylori.

The Helicobacter pylori phase variable gene modH, typified by gene HP1522 in strain 26695, encodes a N6-adenosine type III DNA methyltransferase. Our previous studies identified multiple strain-specific modH variants (modH1 – modH19) and showed that phase variation of modH5 in H. pylori P12 influenced expression of motility-associated genes and outer membrane protein gene hopG. However, the ModH5 DNA recognition motif and the mechanism by which ModH5 controls gene expression were unknown. Here, using comparative single molecule real-time sequencing, we identify the DNA site methylated by ModH5 as 5′-Gm6ACC-3′. This motif is vastly underrepresented in H. pylori genomes, but overrepresented in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Helicobacter pylori strain 7C isolated from a Mexican patient with chronic gastritis.

Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis is a risk factor for developing gastric pathologies. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant H. pylori strain isolated from a chronic gastritis patient in Mexico City, Mexico. Nonvirulent VacA and cag-pathogenicity island (PAI) genotypes were found, but the presence of a potential mobilizable plasmid carrying an IS605 element is of outstanding interest. Copyright © 2016 Mucito-Varela et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Recent “omics” advances in Helicobacter pylori.

The development of high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies is changing the face of microbiology, facilitating the comparison of large numbers of genomes from different lineages of a same organism. Our aim was to review the main advances on Helicobacter pylori “omics” and to understand how this is improving our knowledge of the biology, diversity and pathogenesis of H. pylori. Since the first H. pylori isolate was sequenced in 1997, 510 genomes have been deposited in the NCBI archive, providing a basis for improved understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important pathogen. This review focuses on works published between April…

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