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Haplotype phasing of genetic variants is important for interpretation of the maize genome, population genetic analysis, and functional genomic analysis of allelic activity. Accordingly, accurate methods for phasing full-length isoforms are essential for functional genomics study. In this study, we performed an isoform-level phasing study in maize, using two inbred lines and their reciprocal crosses, based on single-molecule full-length cDNA sequencing. To phase and analyze full-length transcripts between hybrids and parents, we developed a tool called IsoPhase. Using this tool, we validated the majority of SNPs called against matching short read data and identified cases of allele-specific, gene-level, and isoform-level…
A production herd of Czech Simmental cattle (Czech Red Pied, CRP), the conserved subpopulation of this breed, and the ancient local breed Czech Red cattle (CR) were screened for diversity in the antibacterial toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are members of the innate immune system. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR6 from pooled DNA samples were sequenced with PacBio technology, with 3–5×?coverage per gene per animal. To increase the reliability of variant detection, the gDNA pools were sequenced in parallel with the Illumina X-ten platform at low coverage (60× per gene). The diversity in conserved…
In cattle, the X chromosome accounts for approximately 3 and 6% of the genome in bulls and cows, respectively. In spite of the large size of this chromosome, very few studies report analysis of the X chromosome in genome-wide association studies and genomic selection. This lack of genetic interrogation is likely due to the complexities of undertaking these studies given the hemizygous state of some, but not all, of the X chromosome in males. The first step in facilitating analysis of this gene-rich chromosome is to accurately identify coordinates for the pseudoautosomal boundary (PAB) to split the chromosome into a…
The ability to measure chemical and physiologic states in tandem with good experimental design has enabled the discovery and characterization of a plethora of gene–drug interactions. Recent advances in methods to measure organic molecules and phenotypes, describe clinical states, and reason across federated data offer an increasingly precise set of technologies for pharmacogenomics discovery and clinical translation.
The incomplete identification of structural variants (SVs) from whole-genome sequencing data limits studies of human genetic diversity and disease association. Here, we apply a suite of long-read, short-read, strand-specific sequencing technologies, optical mapping, and variant discovery algorithms to comprehensively analyze three trios to define the full spectrum of human genetic variation in a haplotype-resolved manner. We identify 818,054 indel variants (
Current genotyping approaches for single-nucleotide variations rely on short, accurate reads from second-generation sequencing devices. Presently, third-generation sequencing platforms are rapidly becoming more widespread, yet approaches for leveraging their long but error-prone reads for genotyping are lacking. Here, we introduce a novel statistical framework for the joint inference of haplotypes and genotypes from noisy long reads, which we term diplotyping. Our technique takes full advantage of linkage information provided by long reads. We validate hundreds of thousands of candidate variants that have not yet been included in the high-confidence reference set of the Genome-in-a-Bottle effort.
Jonas Korlach, Chief Scientific Officer at PacBio, discussed the technology waves that have followed the initial human genome sequencing project, where we are today, and where we are going. Today, we are in what Korlach calls the 4th wave, where more comprehensive whole-genome re-sequencing is occurring, and we are nearing the 5th, when we will actually be able to free ourselves from reference genomes and sequence everything de novo.
KIR haplotypes can be determined by physical and computational and statistical methods. Martin Maiers from National Bone Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) presents a summary of their work to determine KIR genomic content for use in clinical transplantation, outcomes of HLA sequencing of KIR region across a variety of methods and shares their data from recent experiments using PacBio single-molecule sequencing of fosmid libraries.
Rick Wilson, Director of the McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University in St. Louis titled his talk “Of reference genomes and precious metals” and walked the audience through definitions and standards for the various quality levels for de novo assembled human genomes, e.g., platinum, gold, and silver. He noted that this was a good topic for this session because of the important role PacBio has played in the community’s work to create reference-grade genomes. For example, PacBio technology has enabled them to sequence additional genomes (CHM1, CHM13) to a very high quality level. Although these sequences were essential for further…
Alex Dainis, a graduate student in Euan Ashley’s lab at Stanford University, presents her ASHG 2015 poster on haplotyping for genes linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Using the Iso-Seq method with SMRT Sequencing, she sequenced full transcripts of two genes of interest, generating data on 150 different isoforms. Rare variants, which could not be found with other technologies, were associated with haplotypes.
Shane Brubaker from renewable oil manufacturer Solazyme reports using the PacBio system to sequence the genome of a GC-rich strain of algae that couldn’t be fully assembled with short-read sequence data. He notes that CCS reads exceed Sanger quality at significantly lower cost.
Dan Geraghty from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center presents his AGBT poster on a new PacBio-based solution to sequence extended genomic regions — in this case, KIR and MHC, two of the most variable regions of the human genome. He reports data revealing for the first time regions that may be associated with autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, and also shows that sequences were phased, complete, and highly accurate.