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Thursday, August 27, 2020

Case Study: Scientists create gold standard plant and animal genomes with SMRT Sequencing

From crop improvement to breeding healthier livestock to modeling human disease, scientists are using PacBio Sequencing to advance understanding of plant and animal genomes. In this article, we look at four examples of plant and animal genome references improved or made possible with SMRT Sequencing, including an early example of transcriptome sequencing of a chicken for improved annotation. These examples highlight insights gained with SMRT Sequencing that are missed with short-read data, such as complex regions or novel genes.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

PAG Conference: Approaches taken, progress made, and enhanced utility of long read-based goat, swine, cattle and sheep reference genomes

Tim Smith, molecular geneticist at the USDA Agricutural Research Service (ARS) in Clay Center, Nebraska, and director of the U.S. Meat Animal Reseach Center Core Facilities, discusses the USDA’s efforts to improve the goat, swine, cattle, and sheep genomes through long read-based de novoassemblies scaffolded with a variety of approaches. Recent advances in long-read sequencing, combined with new technologies for scaffolding the resulting contigs, have made it possible to make a significant change in the quality of genome assemblies for a very small fraction of the price required to create the originals. Although a change of reference genomes incurs cost,…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

PAG Conference: From sequencing to chromosomes – new de novo assembly and scaffolding methods improve the goat reference genome

Sergey Koren of the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) discusses integrating the MinHash Alignment Process (MHAP) with Celera Assembler to enable reference-grade assemblies of model organisms, revealing novel heterochromatic sequences and filling low-complexity gap sequences in the GRCh38 human reference genome. Dr. Koren and his team have applied this method to assemble the San Clemente goat genome. Combining SMRT Sequencing and next-generation optical mapping from BioNano Genomics generates an assembly that is over 150-fold more contiguous than the latest Capra hircusgoat reference. In combination with Hi-C sequencing, the assembly surpasses reference assemblies de novo, with minimal manual intervention.…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

The use of PacBio and Hi-C data in de novo assembly of the goat genome.

Generating de novo reference genome assemblies for non-model organisms is a laborious task that often requires a large amount of data from several sequencing platforms and cytogenetic surveys. By using PacBio sequence data and new library creation techniques, we present a de novo, high quality reference assembly for the goat (Capra hircus) that demonstrates a primarily sequencing-based approach to efficiently create new reference assemblies for Eukaryotic species. This goat reference genome was created using 38 million PacBio P5-C3 reads generated from a San Clemente goat using the Celera Assembler PBcR pipeline with PacBio read self-correction. In order to generate the…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Progress on the reassembly and annotation of the goat genome.

The goat (Capra hircus) remains an important livestock species due to the species’ ability to forage and provide milk, meat and wool in arid environments. The current goat reference assembly and annotation borrows heavily from other loosely related livestock species, such as cattle, and may not reflect the unique structural and functional characteristics of the species. We present preliminary data from a new de novo reference assembly for goat that primarily utilizes 38 million PacBio P5-C3 reads generated from an inbred San Clemente goat. This assembly consists of only 5,902 contigs with a contig N50 size of 2.56 megabases which…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

A genome assembly of the domestic goat from 70x coverage of single molecule, real-time sequence.

Goat is an important source of milk, meat, and fiber, especially in developing countries. An advantage of goats as livestock is the low maintenance requirements and high adaptability compared to other milk producers. The global population of domestic goats exceeds 800 million. In Africa, goat production is characterized by low productivity levels, and attempts to introduce more productive breeds have met with poor success due in part to nutritional constraints. It has been suggested that incorporation of selective breeding within the herds adapted for survival could represent one approach to improving food security across Africa. A recently produced genome assembly…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

An update on goat genomics

Goats are specialized in dairy, meat and fiber production, being adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions and having a large economic impact in developing countries. In the last years, there have been dramatic advances in the knowledge of the structure and diversity of the goat genome/transcriptome and in the development of genomic tools, rapidly narrowing the gap between goat and related species such as cattle and sheep. Major advances are: 1) publication of a de novo goat genome reference sequence; 2) Development of whole genome high density RH maps, and; 3) Design of a commercial 50K SNP array.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The antibody loci of the domestic goat (Capra hircus).

The domestic goat (Capra hircus) is an important ruminant species both as a source of antibody-based reagents for research and biomedical applications and as an economically important animal for agriculture, particularly for developing nations that maintain most of the global goat population. Characterization of the loci encoding the goat immune repertoire would be highly beneficial for both vaccine and immune reagent development. However, in goat and other species whose reference genomes were generated using short-read sequencing technologies, the immune loci are poorly assembled as a result of their repetitive nature. Our recent construction of a long-read goat genome assembly (ARS1)…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single-molecule sequencing and chromatin conformation capture enable de novo reference assembly of the domestic goat genome.

The decrease in sequencing cost and increased sophistication of assembly algorithms for short-read platforms has resulted in a sharp increase in the number of species with genome assemblies. However, these assemblies are highly fragmented, with many gaps, ambiguities, and errors, impeding downstream applications. We demonstrate current state of the art for de novo assembly using the domestic goat (Capra hircus) based on long reads for contig formation, short reads for consensus validation, and scaffolding by optical and chromatin interaction mapping. These combined technologies produced what is, to our knowledge, the most continuous de novo mammalian assembly to date, with chromosome-length…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

A golden goat genome

The newly described de novo goat genome sequence is the most contiguous diploid vertebrate assembly generated thus far using whole-genome assembly and scaffolding methods. The contiguity of this assembly is approaching that of the finished human and mouse genomes and suggests an affordable roadmap to high-quality references for thousands of species.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

New technologies boost genome quality.

Three years ago, Erich Jarvis helped mastermind a massive DNA sequenc- ing effort that netted genomes for more than 40 bird species and produced a better avian family tree. But when he tried to compare the avian genomes to those of other species to learn about the evolution and function of several key brain genes, he was stymied. His team found that gene sequences from most of the comparison species—even humans—were incomplete, missing, or misplaced in the larger genome. The group had to resequence sections of sev- eral genomes to get the needed data, delaying their project many months.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma yeatsii strain GM274B (ATCC 43094).

Mycoplasma yeatsii is a goat mycoplasma species that, although an obligate parasite, accommodates this lifestyle as an inapparent commensalist. High-frequency transformation has also been reported for this species. The complete 895,051-bp genome sequence of strain GM274B has been determined, enabling an analysis of the features of this potential cloning host. Copyright © 2015 Calcutt et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequences of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains 48252 (human, pneumonia), CS_10 (lab strain), Ft_2193/ 67 (goat, pus), and CCUG 27541.

Here we report the genome sequencess of four Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains. These include a strain isolated from a patient with C. pseudotuberculosis pneumonia (48252), a strain isolated from pus in goat (Ft_2193/67), a laboratory strain originating from strain Ft_2193/67 (CS_10), and the draft genome of an equine reference strain, CCUG 27541. Copyright © 2014 Håvelsrud et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The characterization of goat genetic diversity: Towards a genomic approach

The investigation of genetic diversity at molecular level has been proposed as a valuable complement and sometimes proxy to phenotypic diversity of local breeds and is presently considered as one of the FAO priorities for breed characterization. By recommending a set of selected molecular markers for each of the main livestock species, FAO has promoted the meta-analysis of local datasets, to achieve a global view of molecular genetic diversity. Analysis within the EU Globaldiv project of two large goat microsatellite datasets produced by the Econogene Consortium and the IAEA CRP–Asia Consortium, respectively, has generated a picture of goat diversity across…

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