July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio anguillarum strain NB10, a virulent isolate from the Gulf of Bothnia.

Vibrio anguillarum causes a fatal hemorrhagic septicemia in marine fish that leads to great economical losses in aquaculture world-wide. Vibrio anguillarum strain NB10 serotype O1 is a Gram-negative, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, isolated from a diseased fish on the Swedish coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, and is slightly halophilic. Strain NB10 is a virulent isolate that readily colonizes fish skin and intestinal tissues. Here, the features of this bacterium are described and the annotation and analysis of its complete genome sequence is presented. The genome is 4,373,835 bp in size, consists of two circular chromosomes and one plasmid, and contains 3,783 protein-coding genes and 129 RNA genes.

July 7, 2019  |  

The complete genome sequence of Exiguobacterium arabatum W-01 reveals potential probiotic functions.

Shrimp is extensively cultured worldwide. Shrimp farming is suffering from a variety of diseases. Probiotics are considered to be one of the effective methods to prevent and cure shrimp diseases. Exiguobacterium arabatum W-01, a gram-positive and orange-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from the intestine of a healthy Penaeus vannamei specimen. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a genome of 2,914,854 bp, with 48.02% GC content. In total, 3,083 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, with an average length of 843.98 bp and a mean GC content of 48.11%, accounting for 89.27% of the genome. Among these ORFs, 2,884 (93.5%) genes were classified into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) families comprising 21 functional categories, and 1,650 ORFs were classified into 83 functional Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. A total of 27 rRNA operons and 68 tRNAs were identified, with all 20 amino acids represented. In addition, 91 genomic islands, 68 potential prophages, and 33 tandem repeats, but no clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), were found. No resistance genes and only one virulence gene were identified. Among the 150 secreted proteins of E. arabatum W-01, a variety of transport system substrate-binding proteins, enzymes, and biosynthetic proteins, which play important roles in the uptake and metabolism of nutrients, were found. Two adherence-related protein genes and 31 flagellum-related protein genes were also identified. Taken together, these results indicate potential probiotic functions for E. arabatum W-01.© 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

July 7, 2019  |  

Campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type IV secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids.

The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which may disrupt host cell processes. In the genomes of 27 C. fetus strains, three phylogenetically-different T4SS-encoding regions (T4SSs) were identified: one was located in both the chromosome and in extra-chromosomal plasmids; one was located exclusively in the chromosome; and one exclusively in extra-chromosomal plasmids. We observed that C. fetus strains can contain multiple T4SSs and that homologous T4SSs can be present both in chromosomal genomic islands (GI) and on plasmids in the C. fetus strains. The GIs of the chromosomally located T4SS differed mainly by the presence of fic genes, insertion sequence elements and phage-related or hypothetical proteins. Comparative analysis showed that T4SS sequences, inserted in the same locations, were conserved in the studied C. fetus genomes. Using phylogenetic analysis of the T4SSs, it was shown that C. fetus may have acquired the T4SS regions from other Campylobacter species by horizontal gene transfer. The identified T4SSs and fic genes were found in Cff and Cfv strains, although the presence of T4SSs and fic genes were significantly associated with Cfv strains. The T4SSs and fic genes could not be associated with S-layer serotypes or geographical origin of the strains.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SO3 (sequence type 302) isolated from a baby with meningitis in Mexico.

The complete genome of Salmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium strain SO3 (sequence type 302), isolated from a fatal meningitis infection in Mexico, was determined using PacBio technology. The chromosome hosts six complete prophages and is predicted to harbor 51 genomic islands, including 13 pathogenicity islands (SPIs). It carries the Salmonella virulence plasmid (pSTV). Copyright © 2016 Vinuesa et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Prediction of putative resistance islands in a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 2 clinical isolate.

We investigated the whole genome sequence (WGS) of a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate belonging to the global clone 2 (GC2) and predicted resistance islands using a software tool.A. baumannii strain YU-R612 was isolated from the sputum of a 61-yr-old man with sepsis. The WGS of the YU-R612 strain was obtained by using the PacBio RS II Sequencing System (Pacific Biosciences Inc., USA). Antimicrobial resistance genes and resistance islands were analyzed by using ResFinder and Genomic Island Prediction software (GIPSy), respectively.The YU-R612 genome consisted of a circular chromosome (ca. 4,075 kb) and two plasmids (ca. 74 kb and 5 kb). Its sequence type (ST) under the Oxford scheme was ST191, consistent with assignment to GC2. ResFinder analysis showed that YU-R612 possessed the following resistance genes: four ß-lactamase genes bla(ADC-30), bla(OXA-66), bla(OXA-23), and bla(TEM-1); armA, aadA1, and aacA4 as aminoglycoside resistance-encoding genes; aac(6′)Ib-cr for fluoroquinolone resistance; msr(E) for macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B resistance; catB8 for phenicol resistance; and sul1 for sulfonamide resistance. By GIPSy analysis, six putative resistant islands (PRIs) were determined on the YU-R612 chromosome. Among them, PRI1 possessed two copies of Tn2009 carrying bla(OXA-23), and PRI5 carried two copies of a class I integron carrying sul1 and armA genes.By prediction of resistance islands in the carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii YU-R612 GC2 strain isolated in Korea, PRIs were detected on the chromosome that possessed Tn2009 and class I integrons. The prediction of resistance islands using software tools was useful for analysis of the WGS.

July 7, 2019  |  

Deciphering the virulence factors of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium colombiense.

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) contains clinically important nontuberculous mycobacteria worldwide and is the second largest medical complex in the Mycobacterium genus after the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. MAC comprises several species that are closely phylogenetically related but diverse regarding their host preference, course of disease, virulence and immune response. In this study we provided immunologic and virulence-related insights into the M. colombiense genome as a model of an opportunistic pathogen in the MAC. By using bioinformatic tools we found that M. colombiense has deletions in the genes involved in p-HBA/PDIM/PGL, PLC, SL-1 and HspX production, and loss of the ESX-1 locus. This information not only sheds light on our understanding the virulence mechanisms used by opportunistic MAC pathogens but also has great potential for the designing of species-specific diagnostic tools.

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