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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Discovery of microbial natural products by activation of silent biosynthetic gene clusters.

Microorganisms produce a wealth of structurally diverse specialized metabolites with a remarkable range of biological activities and a wide variety of applications in medicine and agriculture, such as the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer, and the prevention of crop damage. Genomics has revealed that many microorganisms have far greater potential to produce specialized metabolites than was thought from classic bioactivity screens; however, realizing this potential has been hampered by the fact that many specialized metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) are not expressed in laboratory cultures. In this Review, we discuss the strategies that have been developed in bacteria and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification and heterologous expression of the chaxamycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii.

Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii, isolated from the hyperarid Atacama Desert, produces the new ansamycin-like compounds chaxamycins A to D, which possess potent antibacterial activity and moderate antiproliferative activity. We report the development of genetic tools to manipulate S. leeuwenhoekii and the identification and partial characterization of the 80.2-kb chaxamycin biosynthesis gene cluster, which was achieved by both mutational analysis in the natural producer and heterologous expression in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) strain M1152. Restoration of chaxamycin production in a nonproducing ?cxmK mutant (cxmK encodes 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid [AHBA] synthase) was achieved by supplementing the growth medium with AHBA, suggesting that mutasynthesis may be a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC 23877, the spiramycin producer.

Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 is a soil bacterium industrially exploited for the production of the macrolide spiramycin which is used in human medicine as an antibacterial and anti-toxoplasmosis chemical. Its genome consists of a 8.3Mbp linear chromosome and a 89kb circular plasmid. The complete genome sequence reported here will enable us to investigate Streptomyces genome evolution and to discover new secondary metabolites with potential applications notably in human medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification of the polyketide biosynthetic machinery for the indolizidine alkaloid cyclizidine.

The cyclizidine biosynthetic gene cluster was identified from Streptomyces NCIB 11649, which revealed the polyketide biosynthetic machinery for cyclizidine alkaloid biosynthesis. Both in vivo mutagenesis study and in vitro biochemical analysis provided insight into the timing and mechanism of the biosynthetic enzymes that produce cyclizidine-type indolizidine alkaloids.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Metabolomics-driven discovery of a prenylated isatin antibiotic produced by Streptomyces species MBT28.

Actinomycetes are a major source of antimicrobials, anticancer compounds, and other medically important products, and their genomes harbor extensive biosynthetic potential. Major challenges in the screening of these microorganisms are to activate the expression of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of technologies for efficient dereplication of known molecules. Here we report the identification of a previously unidentified isatin-type antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. MBT28, following a strategy based on NMR-based metabolomics combined with the introduction of streptomycin resistance in the producer strain. NMR-guided isolation by tracking the target proton signal resulted in the characterization of 7-prenylisatin (1) with…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A rebeccamycin analog provides plasmid-encoded niche defense.

Bacterial symbionts of fungus-growing ants occupy a highly specialized ecological niche and face the constant existential threat of displacement by another strain of ant-adapted bacteria. As part of a systematic study of the small molecules underlying this fraternal competition, we discovered an analog of the antitumor agent rebeccamycin, a member of the increasingly important indolocarbazole family. While several gene clusters consistent with this molecule’s newly reported modification had previously been identified in metagenomic studies, the metabolite itself has been cryptic. The biosynthetic gene cluster for 9-methoxyrebeccamycin is encoded on a plasmid in a manner reminiscent of plasmid-derived peptide antimicrobials that…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Impact of the omic technologies for understanding the modes of action of biological control agents against plant pathogens

The characterization of microbial biological control agents (MBCAs) is crucial to improve their efficacy and consistency as biopesticides. Powerful approaches to characterize MBCA’s modes of action are provided by modern molecular technologies. This paper reviews improvements achieved in this subject by three “omics” approaches: namely the genomic, the transcriptomic and the proteomic approaches. The paper discusses the advantages and drawbacks of new molecular techniques and ‘discovery driven’ approaches to the study of the biocontrol properties against plant pathogens. Omics technologies are capable of: (i) identifying the genome, transcriptome or proteome features of an MBCA strain, (ii) comparing properties of strains/mutants…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics and metabolic profiling of the genus Lysobacter.

Lysobacter species are Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in soil, plant and freshwater habitats. Lysobacter owes its name to the lytic effects on other microorganisms. To better understand their ecology and interactions with other (micro)organisms, five Lysobacter strains representing the four species L. enzymogenes, L. capsici, L. gummosus and L. antibioticus were subjected to genomics and metabolomics analyses.Comparative genomics revealed a diverse genome content among the Lysobacter species with a core genome of 2,891 and a pangenome of 10,028 coding sequences. Genes encoding type I, II, III, IV, V secretion systems and type IV pili were highly conserved in all five…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Antibiotic discovery throughout the Small World Initiative: A molecular strategy to identify biosynthetic gene clusters involved in antagonistic activity.

The emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to all known antibiotics is a global health crisis. Adding to this problem is that major pharmaceutical companies have shifted away from antibiotic discovery due to low profitability. As a result, the pipeline of new antibiotics is essentially dry and many bacteria now resist the effects of most commonly used drugs. To address this global health concern, citizen science through the Small World Initiative (SWI) was formed in 2012. As part of SWI, students isolate bacteria from their local environments, characterize the strains, and assay for antibiotic production. During the 2015 fall semester at…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome of Brachybacterium sp. P6-10-X1 isolated from deep-sea sediments of the Southern Ocean

Brachybacterium sp. P6-10-X1 is a rare actinobacterium isolated from deep-sea sediments in the Southern Ocean. To explore the potential of natural product biosynthesis, the genome was completely sequenced. It contained a circular chromosome of 4,385,603 bp with an average GC content of 70.9%. Genome mining revealed four biosynthetic gene clusters potentially producing new natural products.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

An L-threonine transaldolase is required for L-threo-ß-hydroxy-a-amino acid assembly during obafluorin biosynthesis.

ß-Lactone natural products occur infrequently in nature but possess a variety of potent and valuable biological activities. They are commonly derived from ß-hydroxy-a-amino acids, which are themselves valuable chiral building blocks for chemical synthesis and precursors to numerous important medicines. However, despite a number of excellent synthetic methods for their asymmetric synthesis, few effective enzymatic tools exist for their preparation. Here we report cloning of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the ß-lactone antibiotic obafluorin and delineate its biosynthetic pathway. We identify a nonribosomal peptide synthetase with an unusual domain architecture and an L-threonine:4-nitrophenylacetaldehyde transaldolase responsible for (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-4-(4-nitrophenyl)butanoate biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Actinomadura parvosata Subsp. kistnae, a rich source of novel natural product (bio-)chemistry.

The soil dwelling actinomycete strain Actinomadura parvosata subsp. kistnae is the producer of the antiviral antibiotics kistamicin A and B. Genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of the kistamycin biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the formation of these non-ribosomal peptides as well as an impressive number of yet uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways. This includes polyketide, ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptide and a large number of terpenoid biosynthetic loci encoding yet unknown natural products. The genomic data of this strain is thus a treasure trove for genome mining for novel functional metabolites and new biocatalysts.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Paenibacillus ihbetae sp. nov., a cold-adapted antimicrobial producing bacterium isolated from high altitude Suraj Tal Lake in the Indian trans-Himalayas.

The assessment of bacterial diversity and bioprospection of the high-altitude lake Suraj Tal microorganisms for potent antimicrobial activities revealed the presence of two Gram-stain-variable, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria, namely IHBB 9852(T) and IHBB 9951. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the affiliation of strains IHBB 9852(T) and IHBB 9951 within the genus Paenibacillus, exhibiting the highest sequence similarity to Paenibacillus lactis DSM 15596(T) (97.8% and 97.7%) and less than 95.9% similarity to other species of the genus Paenibacillus. DNA-DNA relatedness among strains IHBB 9852(T) and IHBB 9951 was 90.2%, and with P. lactis DSM 15596(T), was 52.7%…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. TN58, a producer of acyl alpha-L-rhamnopyranosides.

Streptomyces sp. TN58, isolated from a Tunisian soil sample, produces several natural products, including acyl alpha-l-rhamnopyranosides. It possesses a 7.6-Mb linear chromosome. This is, to our knowledge, the first genome sequence of a microorganism known to produce acyl alpha-l-rhamnopyranosides, and it will be helpful to study the biosynthesis of these specialized metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Najah et al.

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