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Sunday, July 7, 2019

GMcloser: closing gaps in assemblies accurately with a likelihood-based selection of contig or long-read alignments.

Genome assemblies generated with next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads usually contain a number of gaps. Several tools have recently been developed to close the gaps in these assemblies with NGS reads. Although these gap-closing tools efficiently close the gaps, they entail a high rate of misassembly at gap-closing sites.We have found that the assembly error rates caused by these tools are 20-500-fold higher than the rate of errors introduced into contigs by de novo assemblers. We here describe GMcloser, a tool that accurately closes these gaps with a preassembled contig set or a long read set (i.e. error-corrected PacBio reads). GMcloser…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Gossypium barbadense genome sequence provides insight into the evolution of extra-long staple fiber and specialized metabolites.

Of the two cultivated species of allopolyploid cotton, Gossypium barbadense produces extra-long fibers for the production of superior textiles. We sequenced its genome (AD)2 and performed a comparative analysis. We identified three bursts of retrotransposons from 20 million years ago (Mya) and a genome-wide uneven pseudogenization peak at 11-20 Mya, which likely contributed to genomic divergences. Among the 2,483 genes preferentially expressed in fiber, a cell elongation regulator, PRE1, is strikingly At biased and fiber specific, echoing the A-genome origin of spinnable fiber. The expansion of the PRE members implies a genetic factor that underlies fiber elongation. Mature cotton fiber…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the chromate-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus strain BSB-33.

Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 is a thermophilic gram positive obligate anaerobe isolated from a hot spring in West Bengal, India. Unlike other T. thermohydrosulfuricus strains, BSB-33 is able to anaerobically reduce Fe(III) and Cr(VI) optimally at 60 °C. BSB-33 is the first Cr(VI) reducing T. thermohydrosulfuricus genome sequenced and of particular interest for bioremediation of environmental chromium contaminations. Here we discuss features of T. thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 and the unique genetic elements that may account for the peculiar metal reducing properties of this organism. The T. thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 genome comprises 2597606 bp encoding 2581 protein genes, 12 rRNA, 193 pseudogenes and has a G?+?C…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne.

Here we report the draft genome sequence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), an economically important forage and turf grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It is classified along with wheat, barley, oats and Brachypodium distachyon in the Pooideae sub-family of the grass family (Poaceae). Transcriptome data was used to identify 28 455 gene models, and we utilized macro-co-linearity between perennial ryegrass and barley, and synteny within the grass family, to establish a synteny-based linear gene order. The gametophytic self-incompatibility mechanism enables the pistil of a plant to reject self-pollen and therefore promote out-crossing. We have used the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Lebeckia ambigua-nodulating Burkholderia sp. strain WSM4176.

Burkholderia sp. strain WSM4176 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective N2-fixing root nodule of Lebeckia ambigua collected in Nieuwoudtville, Western Cape of South Africa, in October 2007. This plant persists in infertile, acidic and deep sandy soils, and is therefore an ideal candidate for a perennial based agriculture system in Western Australia. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain WSM4176, which represents a potential inoculant quality strain for L. ambigua, together with sequence and annotation. The 9,065,247 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 13 scaffolds of 65 contigs, contains 8369 protein-coding genes…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The genome and methylome of a beetle with complex social behavior, Nicrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera: Silphidae).

Testing for conserved and novel mechanisms underlying phenotypic evolution requires a diversity of genomes available for comparison spanning multiple independent lineages. For example, complex social behavior in insects has been investigated primarily with eusocial lineages, nearly all of which are Hymenoptera. If conserved genomic influences on sociality do exist, we need data from a wider range of taxa that also vary in their levels of sociality. Here, we present the assembled and annotated genome of the subsocial beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a species long used to investigate evolutionary questions of complex social behavior. We used this genome to address two questions.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Partial genome sequence of Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanodenitrificans ARhD 1(T), a chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium capable of complete denitrification.

Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanodenitrificans strain ARhD 1(T) is a motile, Gram-negative bacterium isolated from soda lakes that belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria. It derives energy for growth and carbon fixation from the oxidation of sulfur compounds, most notably thiocyanate, and so is a chemolithoautotroph. It is capable of complete denitrification under anaerobic conditions. The draft genome sequence consists of 3,746,647 bp in 3 scaffolds, containing 3558 protein-coding and 121 RNA genes. T. thiocyanodenitrificans ARhD 1(T) was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Science Program.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus type strain ARh 1(T), an obligately chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from a Kenyan soda lake.

Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus strain ARh 1(T) is a chemolithoautotrophic, non-motile, Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria that was isolated from samples of haloalkaline soda lakes. It derives energy from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and is notable for its ability to grow on thiocyanate as its sole source of electrons, sulfur and nitrogen. The full genome consists of 3,756,729 bp and comprises 3,500 protein-coding and 57 RNA-coding genes. This organism was sequenced as part of the community science program at the DOE Joint Genome Institute.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Organellar genomes of white spruce (Picea glauca): assembly and annotation.

The genome sequences of the plastid and mitochondrion of white spruce (Picea glauca) were assembled from whole-genome shotgun sequencing data using ABySS. The sequencing data contained reads from both the nuclear and organellar genomes, and reads of the organellar genomes were abundant in the data as each cell harbors hundreds of mitochondria and plastids. Hence, assembly of the 123-kb plastid and 5.9-Mb mitochondrial genomes were accomplished by analyzing data sets primarily representing low coverage of the nuclear genome. The assembled organellar genomes were annotated for their coding genes, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA. Transcript abundances of the mitochondrial genes were…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of biological pathways associated with a 1.37 Mbp genomic region protective of hypertension in Dahl S rats.

The goal of the present study was to narrow a region of chromosome 13 to only several genes and then apply unbiased statistical approaches to identify molecular networks and biological pathways relevant to blood-pressure salt sensitivity in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. The analysis of 13 overlapping subcongenic strains identified a 1.37 Mbp region on chromosome 13 that influenced the mean arterial blood pressure by at least 25 mmHg in SS rats fed a high-salt diet. DNA sequencing and analysis filled genomic gaps and provided identification of five genes in this region, Rfwd2, Fam5b, Astn1, Pappa2, and Tnr. A cross-platform normalization…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

FGAP: an automated gap closing tool.

The fast reduction of prices of DNA sequencing allowed rapid accumulation of genome data. However, the process of obtaining complete genome sequences is still very time consuming and labor demanding. In addition, data produced from various sequencing technologies or alternative assemblies remain underexplored to improve assembly of incomplete genome sequences.We have developed FGAP, a tool for closing gaps of draft genome sequences that takes advantage of different datasets. FGAP uses BLAST to align multiple contigs against a draft genome assembly aiming to find sequences that overlap gaps. The algorithm selects the best sequence to fill and eliminate the gap.FGAP reduced…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequencing of two Neorhizobium galegae strains reveals a noeT gene responsible for the unusual acetylation of the nodulation factors.

The species Neorhizobium galegae comprises two symbiovars that induce nodules on Galega plants. Strains of both symbiovars, orientalis and officinalis, induce nodules on the same plant species, but fix nitrogen only in their own host species. The mechanism behind this strict host specificity is not yet known. In this study, genome sequences of representatives of the two symbiovars were produced, providing new material for studying properties of N. galegae, with a special interest in genomic differences that may play a role in host specificity.The genome sequences confirmed that the two representative strains are much alike at a whole-genome level. Analysis…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Safety of the surrogate microorganism Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 for use in thermal process validation.

Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 is a surrogate microorganism used in place of pathogens for validation of thermal processing technologies and systems. We evaluated the safety of strain NRRL B-2354 based on its genomic and functional characteristics. The genome of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was sequenced and found to comprise a 2,635,572-bp chromosome and a 214,319-bp megaplasmid. A total of 2,639 coding sequences were identified, including 45 genes unique to this strain. Hierarchical clustering of the NRRL B-2354 genome with 126 other E. faecium genomes as well as pbp5 locus comparisons and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the genotype of…

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