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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The complete genome sequence and comparative genome analysis of the multi-drug resistant food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus.

Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic human pathogen causing food-borne gastrointestinal infections and non-gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The strain B. cereus FORC_013 was isolated from fried eel. Its genome was completely sequenced by PacBio technology, analyzed and compared with other complete genome sequences of Bacillus to elucidate the distinct pathogenic features of the strain isolated in South Korea. Genomic analysis revealed pathogenesis and host immune evasion-associated genes encoding tissue-destructive exoenzymes, and pore-forming toxins. In particular, tissue-destructive (hemolysin BL, nonhaemolytic enterotoxins) and cytolytic proteins (cytolysin) were observed in the genome, which damage the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells of the small intestine…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence provides insights into the quorum sensing-related spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica 128 isolated from spoiled shrimp.

Shewanella baltica 128 is a specific spoilage organism (SSO) isolated from the refrigerated shrimp that results in shrimp spoilage. This study reported the complete genome sequencing of this strain, with the primary annotations associated with amino acid transport and metabolism (8.66%), indicating that S. baltica 128 has good potential for degrading proteins. In vitro experiments revealed Shewanella baltica 128 could adapt to the stress conditions by regulating its growth and biofilm formation. Genes that related to the spoilage-related metabolic pathways, including trimethylamine metabolism (torT), sulfur metabolism (cysM), putrescine metabolism (speC), biofilm formation (rpoS) and serine protease production (degS), were identified.…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome sequence analysis of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from mice caught on poultry farms in the mid 1990s.

A total of 91 draft genome sequences were used to analyze isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis obtained from feral mice caught on poultry farms in Pennsylvania. One objective was to find mutations disrupting open reading frames (ORFs) and another was to determine if ORF-disruptive mutations were present in isolates obtained from other sources. A total of 83 mice were obtained between 1995-1998. Isolates separated into two genomic clades and 12 subgroups due to 742 mutations. Nineteen ORF-disruptive mutations were found, and in addition, bigA had exceptional heterogeneity requiring additional evaluation. The TRAMS algorithm detected only 6 ORF disruptions. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequences of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Recovered from a Major Production Region for Leafy Greens in California.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen and is responsible for outbreaks of human gastroenteritis. This report documents the draft genome sequences of nine O157:H7 cattle strains, which were identified to be PCR positive for a Shiga toxin gene but displayed different levels of functional toxin activity.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Whole-genome sequence of the oriental lung fluke Paragonimus westermani.

Foodborne infections caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus are a significant and widespread public health problem in tropical areas. Approximately 50 Paragonimus species have been reported to infect animals and humans, but Paragonimus westermani is responsible for the bulk of human disease. Despite their medical and economic importance, no genome sequence for any Paragonimus species is available.We sequenced and assembled the genome of P. westermani, which is among the largest of the known pathogen genomes with an estimated size of 1.1 Gb. A 922.8 Mb genome assembly was generated from Illumina and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) sequence data, covering 84% of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Humibacter aquilariae BT305, Isolated from the Small Intestine of Castrated Beef Cattle.

Members of the genus Humibacter, from the family Microbacteriaceae, have been isolated from sewage sludge compost, agarwood chips, and various soil samples. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Humibacter aquilariae BT305, the first genome sequence identified within the genus Humibacter, which was isolated from the small intestine of castrated beef cattle.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica Strains (Including Those of Serotypes Montevideo, Mbandaka, and Lubbock) Isolated from Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Healthy Cattle.

Salmonella enterica serotype Lubbock emerged most likely from a Salmonella enterica serotype Mbandaka ancestor that acquired by recombination the fliC operon from Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of two S. Lubbock, one S. Montevideo, and one S. Mbandaka strain isolated from bovine lymph nodes.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis NCM 61, with High Potential for Biofilm Formation, Isolated from Meat-Related Sources.

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain NMC 61 of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, which was previously isolated from conveyor belts during chicken slaughter and has the potential to form biofilms on several surfaces. The genome is predicted to contain 110 noncoding small RNAs on the chromosome.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequences of Three Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O111:H8 Strains Exhibiting an Aggregation Phenotype.

Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are a common source of foodborne illness. STEC O111 is among the most prevalent non-O157 STEC serogroups. Few completed genomes of STEC O111 strains have been reported to date. We report here the complete genomic sequences of three O111:H8 strains that display a distinct aggregation phenotype.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Salmonella harbouring the mcr-1 gene isolated from food in China between 2012 and 2016.

In November 2015, plasmid-mediated transferable colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia isolates was reported in China with a high rate of in vitro horizontal transfer (10-1–10-3 cells per recipient cell by conjugation).1 At that time, the mcr-1 gene had already been identified in >30 countries across five continents, with novel mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4 and mcr-5 genes being reported subsequently.2–5 Recently, a surveillance study was performed on mainland China to investigate the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in foodborne Salmonella isolates isolated from various food matrices and others collected…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Whole genome sequencing used in an industrial context reveals a Salmonella laboratory cross-contamination.

In 2013, during a routine laboratory analysis performed on food samples, one finished product from a European factory was tested positive for Salmonella Hadar. At the same period, one environmental isolate in the same laboratory was serotyped Salmonella Hadar. Prior to this event, the laboratory performed a proficiency testing involving a sample spiked with NCTC 9877 Salmonella Hadar. The concomitance of Salmonella Hadar detection led to the suspicion of a laboratory cross-contamination between the Salmonella Hadar isolate used in the laboratory proficiency testing and the Salmonella Hadar isolate found on the finished product by the same laboratory. Since the classical…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Bioinformatic discovery of a toxin family in Chryseobacterium piperi with sequence similarity to botulinum neurotoxins.

Clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs), which include botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), are the most potent toxins known to science and are the causative agents of botulism and tetanus, respectively. The evolutionary origins of CNTs and their relationships to other proteins remains an intriguing question. Here we present a large-scale bioinformatic screen for putative toxin genes in all currently available genomes. We detect a total of 311 protein sequences displaying at least partial homology to BoNTs, including 161 predicted toxin sequences that have never been characterized. We focus on a novel toxin family from Chryseobacterium piperi with homology to BoNTs.…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative genomics reveals structural and functional features specific to the genome of a foodborne Escherichia coli O157:H7.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) has been linked to numerous foodborne disease outbreaks. The ability to rapidly sequence and analyze genomes is important for understanding epidemiology, virulence, survival, and evolution of outbreak strains. In the current study, we performed comparative genomics to determine structural and functional features of the genome of a foodborne O157 isolate NADC 6564 and infer its evolutionary relationship to other O157 strains.The chromosome of NADC 6564 contained 5466?kb compared to reference strains Sakai (5498?kb) and EDL933 (5547?kb) and shared 41 of its 43 Linear Conserved Blocks (LCB) with the reference strains. However, 18 of 41 LCB had…

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